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1Title:  Atomic shield: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Add
 Chapter title:  "Atomic power: Quandry and quagmire" 
 Summary:  This chapter, from an official history of the AEC, provides a detailed account of the creation of the Naval Reactors program in the context of other activities of the Atomic Energy Commission. Authors Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan (who later cowrote the first official history of the Naval Reactors program) describe the push by Chief of the Bureau of Ships Admiral Earle Mills and Captain Hyman Rickover to create a joint Navy-Atomic Energy Commission program that would, working with private industry, lead the development of a nuclear submarine. One of the strengths of this study is that it shows how the Navy's demands were balanced by the AEC, given the Commission's other responsibilities and the competing demands that it was placing upon vendors like General Electric. The authors describe a series of events in 1948-1949, during which Westinghouse agreed to support the design of the Mark I (S1W) pressurized water reactor plant and General Electric was becoming more deeply engaged with naval nuclear propulsion work. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1969 
 Subject(s):  S1W | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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2Title:  Statement of Admiral H.G. Rickover, USN before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives Add
 Summary:  In the aftermath of the March 1979 reactor accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, Admiral Hyman Rickover, director of the Navy's nuclear propulsion program, was invited to submit information on the Naval Reactors program to a U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee investigating the accident. At the time, Rickover's program was responsible for the operation of 153 reactors, including shipboard and prototype plants and the reactor at the commercial Shippingport Atomic Power Station. His statement describes, in depth, the values and training process in the Naval Reactors program. Rickover notes that "reactor safety requires adherence to a total concept wherein all elements are recognized as important and each is constantly reinforced" (7). For example, plant design and operator training are integrally related to one another, and this is reflected in the program's approach to both areas. On pages 14-16, Rickover describes his philosophy of conservatism in terms of plant design. Most notably, U.S. naval nuclear propulsion plants are designed to be inherently stable; unlike the Three Mile Island plant, they rely on operator instead of automatic reactor control; and, actual nuclear propulsion plants, not simulators, are used for the training of plant operators. Most of the statement focuses on the operator training process in the program. Rickover describes two primary objectives for the training program. Trainees are taught: "1) the principles of science and engineering which are fundamental to the design, construction, and operation of naval nuclear propulsion plants; and (2) the details and practical knowledge needed to operate and operations these plants" (35-36). The two primary components of the training are Nuclear Power School, which provides the theoretical foundation for officers and enlisted trainees, and prototype training; the operation of both schools is described in great depth, clearly indicating the importance that Rickover placed upon training in ensuring the safe operation of naval nuclear propulsion plants. In the hands-on prototype training for officers and enlisted trainees, Rickover emphasizes the different phases of training (classroom and in-hull) and the variety of assessment methods used (including oral checkouts on plant systems, watchstander observation, written examinations, and oral boards). There are some legibility problems in this digital document. 
 Source:  http://www.taproot.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/RickeoverCongressionalTestimony.pdf 
 Date:  24 May 1979 
 Subject(s):  Reactor safety | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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3Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Progam Add
 Summary:  This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing document includes lengthy testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion. It covers a wide range of issues related to the United States Navy's use of nuclear propulsion. As noted in the forward, "the Joint Committee has long recognized the significant military advantages nuclear power provides surface warships" (iii). The hearing is a response to the Department of Defense's (DOD's) proposal to construct two conventionally-powered destroyers after Congress authorized a nuclear-powered frigate in fiscal year 1966. In his testimony, Rickover describes this decision as parallel to earlier "failure[s] of imagination and judgment" regarding the use of nuclear propulsion for submarines and aircraft carriers (11). Based upon this hearing, "the Joint Committee recommend[ed] that the Congress change the fiscal year 1967 Department of Defense authorization to require the two new destroyers to be nuclear-powered ships" (vii). The hearing includes a discussion of budget issues related to the committee's interest in reversing this recommendation. Defense secretary Robert McNamara's lengthy opposition to nuclear-powered carriers is referenced in the forward: "The recommendation of the Joint Committee that a nuclear propulsion plant be installed in the fiscal year 1963 aircraft carrier, the John F. Kennedy, in lieu of the planned conventional propulsion plant was not accepted by the Department of Defense" (iv). However, in March 1966, McNamara accepted nuclear propulsion for the next aircraft carrier (hull number 68). In his testimony, Admiral Rickover notes that this carrier will be powered by two nuclear reactors, which he estimated, would support the ship's propulsion for 13 years before refueling. In describing the engineering approach of Naval Reactors, Rickover asserts that the core lives of submarines and ships had been extended "by building and testing prototypes of these new cores, not by merely making paper studies" (5). He then links DOD's (under McNamara) dependence on cost studies to the slow application of nuclear propulsion to the surface fleet. One of the news items inserted into the record at Rickover's request quotes Captain James Holloway, then captain of the USS Enterprise, who described Enterprise's performance in the Vietnam War: "The deeper you get into a combat situation the more advantages you see to nuclear power" (7). Rickover also describes the fact that the planned two reactor carrier would carry almost twice the amount of aviation fuel and 50 percent more ammunition compared with a conventionally-powered carrier. Finally, Admiral Rickover describes training in the nuclear propulsion program for officers and enlisted candidates, including the theoretical (Nuclear Power School) and practical (prototype training) components, which remain in place today. He notes that the training "emphasizes principles and understanding of fundamentals instead of memorization" (16). 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=3162419&sort=title 
 Date:   1966 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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4Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1974 Add
 Summary:  This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing document includes extensive testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion. Rickover opens by praising several committee members who chose not to stand for reelection in 1974. He reviews the names of committee members who have either died or left Congress - indeed, the Joint Committee was abolished within three years and the changes in Congress made Rickover's 1982 retirement much easier to accomplish. During the hearing, Rickover describes the efforts of Naval Reactors and industry to develop longer life cores for nuclear submarines and surface ships (10 to 13 years at the time of the hearing), including the path to cores that will last the life of the ship and cost issues. These included the higher research costs and the eventual savings obtained through reduced overhaul intervals and increased ship availability. Rickover also describes procurement for SSN-688 (Los Angeles-class) fast attack submarines. (The USS Los Angeles was launched earlier in 1974.) Rickover notes that "funds have been appropriated for 23 of these high-speed submarines, with advanced procurement funds for five more" (4). Finally, the 1973 naval nuclear propulsion (ships and support facilities) environmental monitoring report is included in the document. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=5460466&sort=title 
 Date:   1975 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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5Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1971 Add
 Summary:  This document includes the unclassified testimony of Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Rickover's testimony touches on a wide range of topics, particularly the need to expand the nuclear navy in light the growth of the Soviet fleet. Rickover emphasizes "the rapidly expanding Soviet naval threat and the rapidly declining naval strength of the United States relative to the threat" and the Soviet's quantitative and qualitative advances in submarine development (iii). As one step to address these advances, the Joint Committee advocates "a strong construction program of high speed SSN-688 (Los Angeles-class) class ships" (viii). Rickover asserts that "because of their improved propulsion plant, [Los Angeles-class] submarines will have greatly increased capabilities compared to our previous attack submarine designs" (14). The Joint Committee's primary criticism of the Nixon administration and the Department of Defense is in the area of surface ship nuclear construction, particularly the administration's decision to delay approval for the acquisition of "long lead nuclear propulsion plant components" for the USS Carl Vinson (CVN-70) (xi). In his testimony, Rickover describes the impact of this delay in CVN-70 funding and delivery delays in two other nuclear-powered carriers also being built by Newport News Shipbuilding (the Nimitz and the Eisenhower). The Forward also describes the committee's support for nuclear-powered carrier escort ships. Finally, in describing nuclear propulsion plant development, Rickover emphasizes the importance of "engineering innovation" over radical breakthroughs to achieve more powerful and lighter plants (35). 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=5461032&sort=title 
 Date:   1971 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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6Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1967-8 Add
 Summary:  This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing document includes the unclassified testimony of Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion. He testified on two dates, March 7, 1967 and February 8, 1968. The Forward describes the Joint Committee's ongoing advocacy for surface nuclear propulsion, specifically for an increase in the number of guided missile cruisers to serve as escorts for nuclear-powered carriers. (The second nuclear-powered carrier, the USS Nimitz, had been authorized by this date.) Regarding submarines, the Forward notes Department of Defense cuts to nuclear submarine construction and the parallel with earlier Joint Committee leadership on nuclear propulsion: "Because of the inability of the Department of Defense to recognize the importance of nuclear submarines, the Joint Committee had to arrange for the Atomic Energy Commission to buy the propulsion plants for the first two nuclear submarines, Nautilus and Seawolf, in addition to funding the development work and the land prototypes. Similar action may be necessary at this time to insure the aggressive development of improved nuclear attack submarines" (IX). During his 1967 testimony, Rickover describes the current state of the nuclear propulsion program, with "110 nuclear ships in operation, under construction, or authorized" (13). He cites a major point of contention between the Joint Committee and the Executive Branch, a request for two non-nuclear escort vessels in the 1968 shipbuilding program, and much of his testimony focuses on the benefits of nuclear propulsion for major warships, including escorts. Rickover also describes difficulties in working with the two primary vendors used by Naval Reactors, General Electric and Westinghouse. He reports on the refusal of both companies to formally bid on turbine generator equipment for a submarine, arguing that the rigorous oversight by Naval Reactors was a factor in the refusals. Rickover also updates the Joint Committee on the construction of the NR-1 research vessel. In his 1968 testimony, Rickover provides the Joint Committee with an update on propulsion for guided missile cruisers, including a detailed history of the lengthy battles between Congress and the Department of Defense (under Robert McNamara) on nuclear propulsion for surface ships. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=5459632&sort=title 
 Date:   1968 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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7Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1970 Add
 Summary:  The unclassified portion of Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearings relating to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. The document describes the growth in the Soviet submarine force, including ballistic missile submarines. A key recommendation concerns the construction of a new class of fast attack submarines, the Los Angeles class: "Because of the urgency of delivering the new high-speed SSN 688 class attack submarines to the fleet, the Joint Committee strongly recommends that the fiscal year 1971 nuclear warship construction program include as a minimum the funds necessary to award contracts for four of these submarines and advance funding for three more" (vii). Additionally, David Leighton of Naval Reactors describes the limits on construction activities because the Department of Defense had not placed "the highest industrial priority" on the high-speed submarine project (30). One noted engineering advance is core life extension: "Cores are being produced which will provide for over 10 years of normal ship operations without refueling, a remarkable advancement over the 2- to 3-year lifetimes of our earliest naval cores" (iii). Rickover also describes another technical development, the electric drive submarine, which he asserts "is being designed to be the quietest submarine that has ever been built" (40). He describes the technological advances required for the Nimitz-class carriers, which are powered by two A4W reactors. (At the time of the hearing, the USS Nimitz was under construction.) 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=5461013&sort=title 
 Date:   1970 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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8Title:  Review of naval reactor program and Admiral Rickover award Add
 Summary:  This document is the unclassified record of two Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearings from April 1959. At the second hearing, Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover, who led the Naval Reactors program, was presented with a congressional gold medal in recognition of his efforts, which included the successful application of nuclear power to submarines and Naval Reactors support for the first nuclear power plant designed for civilian purposes. A significant portion of the hearing addresses reactor safety and radiological controls issues. The joint Atomic Energy Commission and Navy responsibilities in the Naval Reactors program is nicely described by Rickover during a discussion on reactor safety: "Before the Nautilus reactor was started we drew up an agreement between the AEC and the Department of Defense which recognized that each agency had a responsibility where the safeguards aspect of naval reactors was concerned....This agreement, and the memorandums of understanding between the AEC and the Navy which followed it, provided that the AEC would present the design of the reactor plant to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards for a safety review and that the results of this review would be forwarded by the AEC to the Navy for their guidance. The reactor plant would then become the responsibility of the Navy, except that the Navy was obligated to make available to the AEC all pertinent information and data concerning operation, including safety standards and operational experiences" (5). The first April 1959 hearing was held on board the USS Skipjack, a newly-commissioned nuclear submarine, and both Rickover and Captain Eugene Wilkinson (the first captain of the USS Nautilus) describe the improvements between the Nautilus, which was commissioned in 1954, and the Skipjack, including improved speed and underwater performance, a shift to a single propeller for propulsion, and easing access to machinery for maintenance. Rickover describes the program's rapid growth, following the successful operation of the S1W plant, the Nautilus, and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. At this point in 1959, "Congress has authorized a total of 33 nuclear-powered submarines. Of the 33, 5 are presently in operation and the others are either under construction or shortly will be under construction....Congress has also authorized a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier...a nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser and a nuclear-powered fleet destroyer" (29-30). 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=3163480&sort=title 
 Date:   1959 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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9Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1972-73 Add
 Summary:  This document is the unclassified record of Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearings held on February 8, 1972 and March 28, 1973. During the 1972 hearing, Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover describes the current size of the United States' nuclear-powered submarine fleet: "We have a total today of 118 atomic submarines authorized of which 97 are presently operational. Among those that are operational, 41 are fleet ballistic missile submarines, 56 are attack submarines. We have a total of 21 more nuclear attack submarines under construction" (3). Both members of the Joint Committee and Rickover express concern over the quantitative advances in the Soviet Union's submarine fleet. This hearing includes a lengthy discussion on personnel selection and retention issues for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. Rickover also advocates for committee support for the funding the fourth nuclear-powered carrier and for the construction of nuclear-powered carrier escorts. In the 1973 hearing, Rickover again expresses his concern over the rapid growth of the Soviet submarine force, noting that the qualitative advantage of U.S. submarines would be decisive "only so long as the quantitative advantage of the opposing force remains within reasonable bounds" (148). He also describes the Polaris submarine replacement program, Trident, the cost of which clearly concern committee members. He emphasizes that the reactor plant costs for the first submarine ("$56 million") were a relatively small part of the total unit cost (168). At this point in time, "long leadtime propulsion plant components for the lead ship and three follow ships [were] on order." (196). Additionally, construction on the Trident (S8G) prototype had started. Admiral Rickover noted the importance of prototype design and construction: "The Trident submarine is planned to follow the approach that has been used successfully to design, build, and deploy our nuclear submarines since the Nautilus. The prototype propulsion plant is being built using the same time phasing as the Nautilus prototype and ship" (198). Finally, Rickover also provides the committee with an update on the high-speed, SSN-688 (Los Angeles-class) submarine. By 1973, twelve Los Angeles-class submarines were under construction. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=5461010&sort=title 
 Date:   1974 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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10Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1976 Add
 Summary:  This document is the unclassified record of hearings on the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program held in March 1976. Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Division of Naval Reactors, testified on the Naval Reactors Program and the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). After summarizing the program's growth (106 submarines in operation, with an additional 32 Los Angeles-class and Trident submarines authorized; and, two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in operation), Rickover describes the rapid growth of the Soviet submarine fleet and the United States' responses of the high-speed, fast attack (SSN-688) class and the Trident ballistic missile submarine to replace Polaris and Poseidon ballistic missile submarines. Some committee members, led by Stuart Symington, express concerns about the high cost of the Trident submarine program. In a statement, Rickover notes the advances provided by Trident in terms of ballistic missile range (permitting submarines to be based closer to the United States) and noise reduction, terming the Trident program as "vital to our national survival" (37). Rickover also includes a defense of nuclear-powered escort vessels in his statement: "Just as I recommended that new aircraft carriers be nuclear powered, so do I recommend that new guided-missile major combatants built to accompany them be nuclear powered" (41). He also compares nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers (CSGNs) with DDG-47 (the USS Ticonderoga), which used gas turbine propulsion, the system that eventually supplanted nuclear propulsion for carrier group escort destroyers and cruisers. A lengthy 1975 environmental monitoring report for the Naval Reactors program (including nuclear-powered ships and support facilities) is included as an appendix. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=2528106&sort=title 
 Date:   1976 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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