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1Title:  Instructions to bring Shippingport power breeder to 100 percent reactor power Add
 Summary:  An image showing President Jimmy Carter's instructions on 2 December 1987 to operators at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station to "increase light-water breeder reactor power to 100%" (191). Carter issued the order from the White House in a ceremony attended by Secretary of Energy James Schlesinger, Admiral Hyman Rickover, and other Naval Reactors officials; it marked the beginning of routine operations at the Shippingport plant following its conversion to a breeder reactor. The core, which generated more fuel than it consumed, was composed of U-233 and Thorium. 
 Source:  http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/PA1658/ 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 190-192. 
 Date:  02 December 1977 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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2Title:  Nuclear analysis and performance of the Light Water Breeder Reator (LWBR) core power operations at Shippingport (LWBR Development Program) Add
 Summary:  This report, written by H.C. Hecker, analyzes the performance of the thorium oxide-uranium oxide Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was used in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. During this period, the Shippingport plant generated 1.7 billion net kilowatt hours of energy to the Duquesne Light Energy utility. Heckert notes that the core's design Effective Full Power Hours output of 18,000 was exceeded in the first three years of operation (at 18,298 EFPH). At this point, limits on reactor power and primary plant pressure and temperature were adopted to extend core life. The unique LWBR design, in which reactivity was controlled through the use of movable fuel assemblies instead of hafnium control rods, is noted by the author. In 1982, "the end of reactivity lifetime at a maximum power level of 80% was reached at about 27,100 EFPH with the 12 movable seed assemblies at the maximum withdrawn position" (3). Hecker also describes the core's breeding efficiency: "Fuel depletion calculations which approximated the actual power operations indicate that more fissile fuel was produced in the core than was consumed. The calculated final fissile fuel content is 1.3 percent greater than the initial fissile fuel inventory" (4). Both the core materials and reactivity control systems were "designed to minimize parasitic neutron losses," thus supporting the breeding process (5). The report includes a description and diagrams of the LWBR's core design, which used the seed-blanket arrangement employed in the original Shippingport core. Historian Francis Duncan describes the time commitments that Admiral Hyman Rickover and the Naval Reactors organization made to the development of a civilian nuclear power industry in the United States, through its technical oversight of the design, construction, and operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and later that of the Light Water Breeder Reactor core. The LWBR was installed in the existing Shippingport reactor pressure vessel and demonstrated breeding in a pressurized water reactor plant. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 190-231. 
 Date:   1984 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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3Title:  Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1975 Add
 Summary:  This document is the unclassified version of Admiral Hyman Rickover's March 5, 1975 testimony to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. This hearing occurred during a time of transition, as the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) had replaced the Atomic Energy Commission and was now the civilian parent of Rickover's Naval Reactors organization. Rickover reports to the committee on the recent, successful sea trials of the USS Nimitz, the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. He also reports on the operation and construction of SSN-688 (Los Angeles) class high-speed fast attack submarines. This hearing record provides a great deal of information on the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Rickover describes its basic design: "We are now working on a breeder core to go into the existing Shippingport plant as a backfit. This breeder core will use light water instead of sodium as coolant." Continuing: "This breeder core will use the thorium/uranium-233 fuel cycle" (21). The LWBR enabled Naval Reactors to install the breeder core into the existing Shippingport reactor vessel and to leverage its experience with water-cooled plants in investigating breeding. During this testimony, Rickover and David Leighton of Naval Reactors contrast the LWBR design with liquid metal breeder reactors, including the significantly lower design costs of the LWBR and the greater breeding potential of the liquid metal design. Appendix 2 is a detailed report on the design, goals, and breeding process for the LWBR. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=5461005&sort=title 
 Date:   1975 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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4Title:  Photographs: Written historical and descriptive data Add
 Summary:  This document provides a historical overview of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, which achieved criticality on December 2, 1957. It describes Admiral Hyman Rickover's role in the plant's design and development. In approaching plant design, the report notes Rickover's "conservative design philosophy" and emphasis on reactor safety (7). The station's first reactor design was a pressurized water reactor (PWR), with Rickover, his Naval Reactors organization, and Westinghouse drawing upon the lessons in the design and development of the S1W (Nautilus prototype) plant, also a PWR. The basics of the PWR's seed-blanket core design are described in the document, as well as innovative aspects of the Shippingport plant that were widely adopted in the commercial nuclear power industry, including the use of "reactor containment, a structure which housed in a series of large, interconnected, vapor-tight vessels all parts of the plant containing the reactor and primary system" (3). Also, "the choice of uranium dioxide and zircaloy tubing was crucial in the history of civilian power reactors. The materials proved so successful that they were widely adopted in the civilian power industry" (10). The document also describes the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was first used in operation in 1977: "Shippingport began operating on a thorium-uranium 233 core to demonstrate the feasibility of breeding in a water-cooled reactor; that is, producing more reactor fuel than was consumed" (3). The document concludes with a bibliographic essay that provides information on the Shippingport plant, including its construction, operation, and decommissioning. 
 Source:  http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pnp/habshaer/pa/pa1600/pa1658/data/pa1658data.pdf 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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5Title:  Fuel summary report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Add
 Summary:  This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core installed in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. The core "was developed to prove the concept of a pressurized water breeder reactor" (iv). Its operation was successful, in that the "LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy" (1-1). The core's design was based on a Thorium/U-233 fuel cycle. The U-233 isotope was used because of its high neutron regeneration factor ("the average number of neutrons produced in fission for each neutron absorbed in fissile fuel") relative to U-235 and Pu-239 (3-1). The LWBR design was similar to the two earlier PWR core its use of a seed-blanket design for the reactor fuel. However, one difference between the LWBR and the PWR cores that preceded it in the Shippingport plant was the control mechanism: instead of Hafnium control rods, the breeder plant "was designed with a movable seed, which was raised and lowered to control neutron absorption" (iv). That is, "to start up the reactor, the seed assemblies were raised, bringing the U-233 bearing parts of the fuel closer together"; to shut down the reactor, the fuel assembly was lowered (3-1). Another innovation in the core's design was the use of a Throrium reflector blanket to reduce neutron leakage. Section 2 includes a detailed description of the breeding decay series (in which Th-232 is converted to Uranium) and of the fuel assembly. Section 5 of the report notes one challenge of the transition from the PWR to LWBR design: "the use of the U-233/Th fuel system led to the need for an extensive analysis of available cross section data and other nuclear data for U-233 and Thorium, which had previously been given less attention than U-235 and U-238" (5-1). 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/2664750.pdf 
 Date:   2002 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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6Title:  Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core (LWBR development program) Add
 Summary:  This report provides a retrospective review of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. NR's central role in the creation of the LWBR is noted: "In the early 1960's, work done by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC - now the Department of Energy, DOE) laboratories under the direction of Naval Reactors showed it might be possible to develop a practical, self-sustaining breeder reactor, cooled and moderated with ordinary (light) water and fueled with uranium-233 and thorium" (1-1). The core's design was guided by two principles, "demonstrating typical utility operational capability while simultaneously producing more fissile fuel than is consumed" (2-1). A U-233/Thorium fuel cycle was used in the LWBR, primarily because "the average number of neutrons produced per atom of fissile fuel destroyed by neutron absorption is large enough for U-233 to permit breeding in a thermal reactor, whereas for either U-235 or Pu-238 this quantity is too small" (3-1). Innovations for the LWBR included "design of a practical movable fuel control system to eliminate neutron-absorbing control rods, and design of reliable fuel rod support system with minimum detrimental effect on neutron economy" (2-1). One problem that occurred during LWBR's operations was high radiation levels in the plant work areas. The report notes that "these levels, which existed after plant shutdown, were attributed to deposition of radioactive wear and corrosion products (crud) onto plant surfaces" (6-26). Section 1 of the report includes an in-depth, chronological summary of the LWBR's operations (broken down by quarter) from its reaching 100% reactor power on 2 December 1977 to its final shutdown on 1 October 1982. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1986 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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7Title:  The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor and Light-Water Breeder Reactor Add
 Summary:  This summary and outline, written by J.C. Clayton of the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, describes the history of the cores used at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. It notes that the design and construction of the Shippingport plant, the first commercial power reactor in the United States, was led by the Naval Reactors Branch, reporting to the Atomic Energy Commission. PWR core 1 used a seed-blanket arrangement, with "highly-enriched uranium alloy fuel assemblies" constituting the seed, and "natural uranium dioxide fuel rods" the blanket (3). For PWR core 1, Clayton notes that both regions were essential in maintaining a chain reaction. PWR core 2 employed several advances in reactor technology in order to increase power density and core lifetime. Unlike PWR core 1, the seed region of PWR 2 was capable of a self-sustaining reaction. Both PWR cores 1 and 2 employed Hafnium control rods in the seed region only. Clayton then summarizes the operation of the Shippingport reactor using the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core, its final core prior to decommissioning. He notes that "the Shippingport LWBR demonstrated the feasibility of using the thorium-uranium fuel cycle in a light-water environment" (6). Given the fact that the LWBR was used in the Shippingport reactor vessel and plant, Clayton asserts that the LWBR design "is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in future generations of nuclear reactors" (6). 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1993 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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