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1Title:  Tour of "USS Enterprise" and report on Joint AEC Naval Reactor Program Add
 Summary:  This document is based on a hearing that members of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy conducted on board the USS Enterprise in the spring of 1962. The hearing touched on a number of issues, involving both capabilities and costs, which factored into the adoption of nuclear propulsion for aircraft carriers. The first commanding officer of the Enterprise, Vincent P. de Poix, summarized the benefits of nuclear propulsion for carriers, including the ability to rapidly position the ship for air operations, the ability to sail to a trouble spot because of the carrier's support for sustained high-speed propulsion, and the absence of stack gases in the flight deck area, which minimizes aircraft corrosion in comparison with operations on an oil-fired carrier. The qualitative advantages that de Poix summarized, however, were weighed against quantitative advantages emphasized by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, who recommended in 1963 that the next carrier to be built (CV-67) be conventionally-powered. The hearing also provides a nice summary of the naval nuclear propulsion training program, including the role of the Idaho National Laboratory's A1W prototype. Both the Enterprise's Reactor Officer, D.P. Brooks, and the ship's Engineering Officer, R.S. Smith, testify at the hearing and describe training approaches and the organization of the Enterprise's nuclear-trained officers and operators on the ship. The hearing document also includes "A treatise on nuclear propulsion in surface ships." This study was commissioned by Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, in late 1960 and was completed in early 1961. It detailed both the favorable and limiting aspects regarding the adoption of nuclear propulsion in surface ships. A cost factor of 1.5 was included in the study. As summarized by historian Francis Duncan, this finding suggested that "the navy could buy ten nuclear-powered ships or fifteen oil-fired ships of the same type for the same total sum." Admiral Hyman Rickover (Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion) also testified at this hearing and addressed both this cost factor and the capabilities provided by nuclear propulsion. Finally, pages 54 through 56 of the hearing document include Rickover's summary of Shippingport Atomic Power Station reactor attributes and the potential benefits that the work at Shippingport could have for the nation's commercial nuclear power industry. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=3160343&sort=title 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 111-114. 
 Date:  31 March 1962 
 Subject(s):  A1W | A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 
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...IREPORT OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" AND ON JOINT AEC-NAYAL REACTOR PROGRAM HEARING BEFORE THE EIGHTY-SEVENTH...

...CONGEESS SECOND SESSION ON TOUR OF THE U.S.S. ENTERPRISE AND REPORT ON JOINT AEC-NAVAL REACTOR PROGRAM MARCH 31, 1962 Printed for the use of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1962 CHET...

...Committee on Atomic Energy was privileged to spend 2 days at sea off Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, aboard the U.S.S. Enterprise (CVA(N)65), the world's largest ship and first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. During this visit, the Joint Committee...

...is more important than ever and must be maintained and supported. CHET HOLEBTELD, Chairmcm. C O N T E N T S STATEMENTS OF WITNESSES Page Brooks, Comdr. D. P. , U.S. Navy, reactor officer, U.S.S. Enterprise 8 de Poix, Capt. V. P. ,...

...U.S. Navy, commanding officer, U.S.S. Enterprise.. 3 Rickover, Vice Adm. Hyman G. , Manager, Naval Reactors, Division of Reactor Development, AEG 11 Smith, Lt....

...Comdr. R. S. , engineer officer, U.S.S. Enterprise 10 ADDITIONAL MATERIAL SUPPLIED FOR THE RECORD Atomic Energy Commission and Advisory Committee on Reactor Safe- guards statements on the safeguards review by the Naval Reactors Branch 40 "A...

...AEC, to Congressman Chet Holifield, dated March 16, 1962, concerning training of officers and men for nuclear naval vessels 37 TOUR OF U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" AND REPORT ON JOINT AEC-NAVAL REACTOR PROGRAM SATURDAY, MARCH 31 1962 CONGRESS OF...

...THE UNITED STATES, JOINT COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC ENERGY, Aboard U.S.S. "Enterprise" off Guantanamno Naval Base, Cuba. Met at 6:45 p.m. , pursuant to call, in Flag Cabin, U.S.S. Enter- prise, Hon. Chet Holifield, chairman, presiding. Present:...

...This is an executive session hearing of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. We meet today aboard the U.S.S. Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, at sea approximately 26 nautical miles off the coast of Cuba. We...

...for the night operations. So I will vacate this place until he comes. (Brief recess. ) TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 3 Chairman HOLIFIELD. Captain, we are very please'd to be your guests here today. We want to express our appreciation for...

...idea. Representative PRICE. Thank you. Chairman HOLIFIELD. Are there further questions ? 8 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Senator PASTORE. I have one question. What is the percentage of those who are proficient, the members of the crew, in...

...of the engineering part of the operation, STATEMENT OF OOMDR. D. P. BROOKS, U.S. NAVY, REACTOR OFFICER, IT.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Commander BROOKS. I feel I don't have much to say after the cap- tain finished, but I am sure we all agree with his...

...good answer. Are there any further questions ? Mr. Secretary, do you have any questions ? 10 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Secretary BELIEU. No, sir. Chairman HOLIFIELD. Thank you very much, Commander Brooks. Now, if Lieutenant Commander...

...from you, sir. You are in charge of the reactors ? STATEMENT OF LT. COMDR. R. S. SMITH, ENGINEER OFFICER, U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Lieutenant Commander SMITH. Commander Brooks is in charge of the reactors. I have the engineering plant itself....

...is performance, not the number. Senator AIKEN. I supposed what we were buying was national defense. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 21 Kepresentative WESTLAND. If the Senator will yield, this carrier carries, I believe, about 100 aircraft....

...false reliance on it. Chairman HOLIFIELD. Senator Pastore. Senator PASTORE. What is the comparative speed of the Enterprise as against our fastest nuclear propelled submarine ? Admiral RICKOVER. [Deleted. ] Senator PASTORE. In other words,...

...that factor alone is not enough. There are other factors, such as those mentioned by the cap- TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 23 tain and by the other officers here, which give advantages to a nuclear carrier, but I would not say that less...

...ask Admiral Hogle to verify whether this is a correct statement or not. Admiral HOGLE. Admiral, I would not like to commit myself in that regard. I am not familiar with the Kitty Hawk at the moment as com- pared with the Enterprise. 24 TOUR...

...OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Secretary BELIEU. I am not too familiar with these past figures, but looking through the record there is no question this ship was con- tracted in the fall of 1957. Keel was laid in the spring, February, something...

...WESTLAND. This was only about a year or two ago. I thought this is what you asked for. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 35 Secretary BELIEU. If I might, Mr. Chairman, if my memory serves me correctly, that which came from the bill prohibited...

...Representative HOSMER. Do you know how those pictures were taken? Admiral RICKOVER. No, I don't. 36 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Senator ANDERSON. I venture, if you have the FBI investigate for 3 solid years they will never be able to...

...MORRIS. But not just the whims of some bureau- crat Admiral RICKOVER. That is correct, sir. TOUR OF THE TJ.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 51 Representative MORRIS. In the executive department of the Gov- ernment. Representative HOSMER. The reason for...

...Even with 43 power reactors going, you don't hear much from us about anything going wrong. 52 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Kepresentative HOSMER. Is there any flag officer, other than your- self, that has specialized in this field ?...

...Anderson were also with me that day and, in addition, Senator Aiken and Congressman Westland. 2 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Again on April 9, 1960, the Joint Committee held a hearing at sea, aboard the U.S.S. George Washington, the...

...in operating this tremendous ship. STATEMENT OF CAPT. V. P. de POIX, U.S. NAVY, COMMANDING OFFICER, IT.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Captain DE POIX. I wTill be delighted, sir. First, I would like to say we consider it our pleasure to have you aboard....

...in some particular direction. We call it "point of intended movement" or PIM. 89538—62 2 4 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" We find that with the tremendous acceleration we gain from nuclear propulsion, we are able to turn into the wind...

...not significantly greater [de- leted]. To explore this point for a moment, we carry close to a TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 5 million gallons of black oil in this ship, by design, in order to refuel oil-burning escorts, destroyers. Also,...

...design problem if it were to be done on a conventional ship. But it is not a problem here. 6 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" The absence of stack gas is advantageous. The pilots don't have the stack gasses to fly through in coming aboard. I...

...officer and executive officer who conies aboard any ship feels the necessity that he know TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 7 enough about the various portions of his ship that he can successfully administer and operate his command. The more...

...in the service. Captain DE Poix. That is true. Representative PRICE. In other words, we gave him 3 years on the Enterprise, and then he may never go back to it. Wouldn't the Navy lose something by lack of continuity of the service of these...

...there and watch that dial and operate part of that propulsion plant, but for him to operate it TOUR OF THE U.S.S. " ENTERPRISE" 9 indefinitely and really take advantage of this wonderful plant, he has to understand the background. He has to...

...today. You can't tell you are not inside the engineroom. You might say, well, let us start a school on board the Enterprise and we will send these sailors through here and operate them like they do at Idaho, and you could do that, and here...

...as it is on this ship. We get comments all the time: "We didn't work as hard on my last ship." Well, this is the Enterprise. One other point I would like to bring up that I think this program has which to my mind is the biggest thing in...

...action is taken, both on their ship and on other ships as appropriate. Since 89538—62 & 12 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" they know they will suffer no penalty by telling us, they tell us the truth. On the other hand, if they knew we...

...modern weapons solely on a cost basis, the Congress could argue that there is 20 times as much TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 13 justification for not having the most modern airplanes on these ships as there is for not having the most...

...than a nuclear carrier is entirely one of finance. Mr. RAMEY. The initial capital cost? 14 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Admiral RICKOVER. Capital eost and operating cost; both figure out at about the same ratio: about 30 to 50 percent...

...Representative PRICE. I think it is Department of Defense testi- mony, to tell you the truth. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 15 Admiral RICKOVER. The Navy itself asked the Department of De- fense for a nuclear carrier, but the request was...

...appropriations, personnel appropriations and maintenance and operations appropriations. 16 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 3. Weight, space, and endurance a. Nuclear propulsion plants for surface ships have been heavier and have required...

...to provide greater space and weight for larger weapons installations and additional fuel oil. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 17 (2) The destroyer and frigate types require more frequent refueling since their steaming distances are usually...

...such as steam for catapults, and the very high electrical loads of new radars and sonars. 18 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 4. A stockpile of reactor cores could be created in the strategic materials program. These stockpiles of reactor...

...surface ships of the Navy have gone where needed to carry out this multiocean responsibility. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 19 2. There have been important degrees of improvement in weapons systems, radars, sonars, and so forth, that have...

...keep these ships out on station for [deleted] with only brief repair periods. Now, 89538—£2 4 20 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" that is an intangible. It is hard to assign it a monetary value, but it is clearly worth something. A Polaris...

...Admiral RICKOVER. Yes, sir. For example, the price of fuel is com- ing down. The eight nuclear cores now in the Enterprise cost rough- ly [deleted]. I believe replacement cores will be about [deleted]. This trend is pretty much true of all...

...crew was trained in doing it, they just went ahead and in a short time they put another 22 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" motor on. That is all there was to it. And with the kind of reactors we use, as soon as they shut down the reactor,...

...February 1958 and is ex- pected to be deployed before either the Constellation or the Kitty Hawk. The Constellation, authorized 1 year before the Enterprise, was laid down in 1957. The Kitty Haiuk, authorized the year before that, was laid...

...down in 1956. From the date of contract to completion of construction took 4 years for Enterprise, 5y% years for Constella- tion and 51/£> years for Kitty Haiok. This ship is readier to go to war today than either the Constellation or the...

...have the greatest respect for the ability and accomplishments of the admiral. Nevertheless, his TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 25 knowledge and experience, and those of the experts in his office, together with the overall capability of the...

...data are di- vulged by any means. Access to the space above the reactor and the machinery 26 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" spaces is permitted for these individuals since this is required in order to pass through the ship; however, dials...

...nationals, then Congress may have to consider amending the law or asking the Atomic Energy TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 27 Commission to review the interpretation of restricted data as it applies to naval propulsion. I suggest that the...

...necessary for the maintenance of amicable relations and effective execution of defense 28 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" responsibilities with those countries with which we are allied in important naval matters. I appreciate your calling...

...plant information. Sincerely yours, CLINTON P. ANDERSON, Chairman, Subcommitte on Security. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 29 THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE, Washington, Marohl, 1962. Hon. CLINTON P. ANDERSON, Chairman, Subcommittee on Security,...

...I question whether the same ability and capability to exploit any information gained can 30 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" be assumed to exist in those foreign countries which have had little or no experience in the design, construction,...

...d. Reference (d) provides guidance for the protection of "Official Use Only" information. TOUR OF THE II.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 31 e. and f. References (e) and (f) provided original guidance for the conduct of visits to nuclear powered ships by...

...of posi- <4ons of the visitors. The ship visited will submit a report of each disclosure 32 TOUR OF THE TJ.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" to CNO as required by subparagraph 4a(5) on enclosure (1) to reference (a) , using the information shown in the...

...permits foreigners to tour our naval nuclear propulsion plants on the basis that a casual TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 33 visit doesn't give away any technical information. Our Navy officials may consider these visits casual, but you can...

...for less than $3 you can get this completely accurate reproduction." The little boy said, 34 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" "Can I have one of the Eussian submarines, too?" I said, "No, you can't have that." She left, trying to explain...

...10. Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. 11. Norfolk Naval Shipyard (in process of qualification). TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 37 Furthermore, we have a large number of ships beginning to operate. Now, 3 or 4 years ago, when we had only a few...

...commended the degree of cooperation which exists between the AEC and the Navy in this matter. 38 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" In a reply to me dated February 19, 1962, the Secretary of the Navy reaffirmed the importance of continuing...

...intends to discharge its responsibility by insuring that any person who operates a nuclear TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 39 reactor has been adjudged competent to do so. The Commission has established detailed procedures for accomplishing...

...lessened. We do not intend to let this happen. With kindest regards, Sincerely, FRED KORTH. 40 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Admiral KICKOVER. There have already been nuclear accidents in other programs, for example the accident with the...

...2. In transmitting these recommendations, the Director of Reactor Develop- ment, AEG, stated: TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 41 "This program has borne the responsibility of establishing policy for the routine operation of a power reactor...

...during radical maneuvering, thus proving the basic emphasis placed on safety by the Naval 42 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Reactors Branch during the design, construction, testing, and operation of naval reactor plants is worthwhile. The...

...including visits to the Tullibee and the Seawolf on April 6 and 7, the Patrick Henry on August 13 and 14, and the Enterprise on August 22, 1960. "The Committee has been impressed with the thought and effort that have gone into setting up...

...for nuclear-powered ships. It considers this practice to be important and urges its continuance. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 43 "To maintain the present admirable safety record of nuclear-powered ships, the Committee emphasizes the...

...this into separate development and operations groups and still get it done effectively. 44 TOUR OF THE TJ.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" To create a nuclear ship, bring it into successful operation and keep it operating requires control and coordination...

...of radioactivity but also involves training of many organizations and people to handle this work. TOUR OF THE TJ.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 45 I am not particularly worried about the present; it is the future that concerns me. I have a great concern...

...Energy Commission. As one aspect of fulfilling its responsibility for reactor safety, the 46 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Atomic Energy Commission must assure itself that operating crews for nuclear ships have the knowledge, experience,...

...and radiation control problems associated with the operation of a nuclear propulsion plant. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 47 Selection and training procedures similar to those just described are used for all naval personnel assigned to...

...laboratories. Instruction is provided by naval personnel or by civilian personnel from the naval 48 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" reactor laboratories. Where these civilian personnel are employed solely in training duties they are paid...

...themselves have actually supervised the design of the equipment on which instruction is provided. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 49 Training at the building yard begins upon arrival of the crew; this is timed so that the majority of the...

...do feel there are competent people who could take this job on ? Admiral RICKOVER. Yes, sir. 50 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Representative HOSMER. But I detect a possible feeling that you fear that they might not be able to ward off the...

...natural circulation submarine reactor plant, and replacement cores which we are developing for our Polaris and attack submarines and for the Bainbridge type destrovers [de- leted]. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 53 We are also developing a...

...replacement core suitable for installation in the Enterprise and Long Beach reactors which we expect will be capable of operating [deleted]. I do not want to give the impression that these developments are complete; they are a long way from...

...for nuclear submarines; we have the capability in our nuclear training schools to do so. 54 TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" Additional junior officers are available in the surface Navy. I be- lieve the Navy should give the nuclear submarine...

...power) from a blanket of natural uranium by using a seed, that is, a small highly enriched TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 55 part of the core as a driving element. The plutonium built up in the natural uranium blanket is burned in place...

...cost of fabri- cating the extracted plutonium into fuel elements, the actual real worth 56 TOUR OF THE TJ.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" of plutonium for power reactors can significantly affect the economics of nuclear power. When I selected the seed...

...accomplished a great, great deal with your help and others over a very short period of time. TOUR OF THE U.S.S. "ENTERPRISE" 57 Talking from where I have, in my office, my position, with others in similar positions and higher, I have high...

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2Title:  Draft environmental assessment on the disposal of naval reactors plants from USS Enterprise (CVN-65) Add
 Summary:  This document provides information on the preferred disposal plan for the eight defueled reactor plants in the USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. It lays out the timeline for Enterprise's deactivation; it "is expected to enter dry dock at Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia for inactivation in 2013. Defueling will be conducted at Newport News Shipbuilding. Inactivation is expected to be complete in about 2017 or 2018" (1-1). At that point, Enterprise will be towed to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS & IMF) for removal of the already-defueled reactor compartments. The compartments will be packaged and shipped to the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The actual shipment of the packages to Hanford is estimated to occur between 2023 and 2027. The assessment includes information on the estimated exposure required for the preparation and packaging of the compartments (about 300 rem of collective radiation exposure") (2-2). Page 2-6 includes a diagram that shows the locations of the eight reactor compartments on board the Enterprise, which are paired in four propulsion plants. The assessment describes the methodology for transporting the packages to Hanford and describes transport challenges and accident scenarios. The document also describes an interim "no-action alternative" to the preferred plan: placing the Enterprise in waterborne storage at the PSNS & IMF facility. This alternative has the disadvantage of "only delay[ing] ultimate permanent disposal" (2-17). 
 Source:  http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/EA-1889-DEA-2011.pdf 
 Date:   2011 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Hanford Site | Ship-Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) | Naval Reactors 
 
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...NAVFAC 2009 Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Site Specific Report SSR-6558- OCN, Concept for Mooring USS ENTERPRISE (CVN 65) at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & IMF, Bremerton, WA, July 21, 2009. NOAA 2007 Hydrographic Survey Project...

...Service). 2004. Biological Opinion. Drydock Operations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Subbase Bangor DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA R-2 REFERENCES (Continued) Sinclair Inlet and Hood Canal, Washington. NMFS Tracking No. 2000/01345. NMFS 2008...

...State status report for the killer whale. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA. 106 pp. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA R-4 REFERENCES (Continued) WA 2007 University of Washington. 2007. The Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network....

...enclosure to letter UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ON THE DISPOSAL OF DECOMMISSIONED, DEFUELED NAVAL REACTOR PLANTS FROM USS ENTERPRISE (CVN 65) SEPTEMBER...

...2011 DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA RESPONSIBLE AGENCIES: Lead Federal Agency: U.S. Department of the Navy Cooperating Agency: U.S....

...Department of Energy TITLE: Draft Environmental Assessment on the Disposal of Decommissioned, Defueled, Naval Reactor Plants from USS ENTERPRISE (CVN 65)...

...DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.   PURPOSE AND NEED ..................................................................................................................... 1-1  1.1 ...

...4-2  4.3.2  Transport .................................................................................................................................. 4-7  DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA ii 4.3.3  Hanford...

...5-1 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................ R-1    DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA iii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 2.1. Comparison...

...of Reactor Compartment Packages ................................................................ 2-4 FIGURE 2.2. ENTERPRISE Reactor Compartment Barge Loading Concept ......................................... 2-6  FIGURE 2.3. Reactor...

...Transport Route................................................................ 2-8  FIGURE 2.4. Port of Benton ENTERPRISE Package Off-loading Concept .......................................... 2-10  FIGURE 2.5. Hanford Site Transport...

...in Trench 94, November 2009 .................................................................................. 2-12 FIGURE 2.7. Conceptual ENTERPRISE Reactor Compartment Package ............................................ 2-16  FIGURE 4.1....

...PSNS & IMF Conceptual ENTERPRISE Mooring Arrangement ................................... 4-20  LIST OF TABLES TABLE...

...1.1 TYPICAL RADIOACTIVITY BY INDIVIDUAL RADIONUCLIDE PRESENT IN ENTERPRISE REACTOR PLANTS COMPARED TO CRUISER, LOS ANGELES, AND OHIO CLASS REACTOR PLANTS FIVE YEARS AFTER FINAL REACTOR SHUTDOWN (...

...1-4 TABLE 1.2 TYPICAL RADIOACTIVITY BY INDIVIDUAL LONG LIVED RADIONUCLIDES PRESENT IN ENTERPRISE REACTOR PLANTS COMPARED TO CRUISER, LOS ANGELES, AND OHIO CLASS REACTOR PLANTS FIVE YEARS AFTER FINAL REACTOR SHUTDOWN (...

...LISTED SPECIES .................................................................................... 3-10  DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 1-1 1. PURPOSE AND NEED United States Navy (Navy) nuclear ships are decommissioned and defueled at the end of...

...justified by their military capability, or when the ship is no longer needed. The Navy is decommissioning the USS ENTERPRISE and must determine the method to use to dispose of the reactor plants, after the vessel is defueled. The Navy has...

...shipment of the reactor compartment packages to a designated Navy trench at Hanford (Trench 94), has been completed for 114 ships, and is the reasonable and preferred choice for reactor compartment disposal of ENTERPRISE. Pursuant to the...

...National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, ENTERPRISE is expected to enter dry dock at Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia for inactivation in 2013. Defueling will be conducted...

...at Newport News Shipbuilding. Inactivation is expected to be complete in about 2017 or 2018. ENTERPRISE would arrive at PSNS & IMF in Bremerton, WA, under Navy tow, already defueled and inactivated....

...This Environmental Assessment evaluates the preferred alternative for disposal of reactor compartments from USS ENTERPRISE (CVN 65) at PSNS & IMF, within the Navy’s ongoing program...

...of reactor compartment disposal. Under this alternative, ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be prepared at PSNS & IMF, transported to the Department of Energy Hanford Site, and be placed...

...at Trench 94 for land disposal consistent with the ongoing program. Reactor compartment disposal of ENTERPRISE could commence as early as 2018 or 2019 under the preferred alternative and is expected to take six to eight years, with...

...occurring in the final two (2) to 2 ½ years of this period (likely between 2023 and 2027). Much description and analysis in USN 1996 is common to all Navy reactor compartments and their disposal, including ENTERPRISE, and is summarized (...

...when relevant to ENTERPRISE) in this Environmental Assessment and referenced back to USN 1996 for additional detail. In parallel with the reactor compartment disposal program, the Navy recycles the remnant sections of ship hull at PSNS &...

...amp; IMF, totaling 114 ships to date. This program was initiated for submarine hulls by the Environmental Assessment of USN 1993. Subsequent reviews for surface ship hull recycle, including ENTERPRISE Class, have concluded that there...

...would not be DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 1-2 a significant change from the current recycle program. Many of the processes discussed for reactor compartment disposal apply as well to remnant hull recycle. Remnant hull recycle supports reactor...

...compartment packages onto barges. Remnant hull recycle is discussed to present the complete picture of how the disposal occurs. 1.1 Background USS ENTERPRISE, the Navy’s first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, was commissioned in 1961...

...and has operated for nearly 50 years. ENTERPRISE is the oldest operating ship in the U.S. Navy, is the second oldest vessel still in commission after the three-masted frigate USS CONSTITUTION, and will reach the end of her useful life in...

...compartment disposal program in depth, but did not include aircraft carriers in its scope. It is now proposed that reactor compartment disposal for ENTERPRISE would be comparable to the LONG BEACH cruiser class evaluated in USN 1996,...

...and much distinguished from the newer NIMITZ class carriers. ENTERPRISE has eight reactors in four pairs of reactor compartments. These eight reactor compartments, when separated, are similar in size and content to those of the LONG BEACH,...

...Class is outside the scope of this document) but would likely be substantially different than evaluated in USN 1996. Due to the similarity between ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages and those of the LONG BEACH, and commonality in...

...Navy reactor plant design, much of the content of USN 1996 encompasses the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages and describes their disposal. Section 1.2 of USN 1996 provides a general discussion of Navy reactor plants. In summary, naval...

...is within the corrosion resistant structural alloys forming the plant as activated atoms of iron and DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 1-3 other elements within the metal alloy. The remaining 0.1% is smaller particles deposited within the corrosion...

...or greater, is contained within the reactor vessel itself. Table 1.1 of this Environmental Assessment shows radionuclides representing 1% or greater of total radioactivity for the ENTERPRISE reactor plants as compared to the reactor plants...

...of USN 1996. The ENTERPRISE reactor plants add about 3% cumulatively to the radioactivity presented by the USN 1996 plants, at 5 years after shutdown (assuming a hypothetical case for comparison where it would be possible to dispose of all...

...but is almost completely decayed in 50 years. Ni-63 remains after 500 years but is a weak beta emitter. At 2000 years, less than 0.1 curies of total Ni-63 would remain in the reactor compartment packages from all eight ENTERPRISE plants....

...Radioactivity presented for ENTERPRISE is determined by the same method of appendix D of USN 1996 as cited for...

...the USN 1996 plants. This method remains valid for the ENTERPRISE (section 4.3.7.3 of this Environmental Assessment relates). Long lived radioactivity (100 year half-life or...

...greater) is also present within very corrosion resistant alloys within the reactor vessel, but contributes little to total radioactivity in ENTERPRISE plants, as is the case with other reactor plants already analyzed....

...Table 1.2 shows long lived radioactivity for all eight ENTERPRISE plants as compared to the 100 reactor plants...

...of USN 1996. The ENTERPRISE reactor plants would add less than 3% cumulatively to the USN 1996 plants for the...

...long lived radionuclides presented. As described in USN 1996, the ENTERPRISE long lived radioactivity would be released from within corrosion resistant alloys at a very low rate such that substantial decay would occur prior to release and...

...e.g. , Ni-63 would decay fully before reaching groundwater). Section 4 of this Environmental Assessment provides additional details. The eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be similar in size, shape, weight, and content to those of...

...the LONG BEACH, discussed in USN 1996. Similarly, the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be regulated as dangerous waste in Washington State under the Washington Administrative Code (WA 1996)(WAC 2009) for the presence of solid lead...

...law (40 CFR 761) for the presence of non-leachable PCB within solid materials such as rubber and paint. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 1-4 TA BL E 1 .1 RA DI OA CT IV IT Y B Y I ND IV ID UA L R AD IO NU CL ID E P RE SE NT IN EN TE RP RI SE RE AC...

...mu lati ve: EN TE RP RIS E ( 8 P lan ts) Cru ise r, L os An gel es, an d O hio Cl ass (1 00 Pla nts )e DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 1-5 TA BL E 1 .2 LO NG LI VE D R AD IO AC TI VI TY BY IN DI VI DU AL LO NG LI VE D R AD IO NU CL ID ES PR ES EN T...

...b Cru ise r, L os An gel es, an d O hio Cl ass (1 00 Pla nts co mb ine d)c EN TE RP RIS E P lan ts R adi oac tiv ity as a P erc ent age of Cru ise r, L os An gel es, an d O hio Cl ass Pl ant s DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-1 2. ALTERNATIVES The...

...following sections discuss in detail the preferred alternative for disposal of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments as well as the No-Action Alternative. The discussion includes estimated costs for the two alternatives. 2.1 Preferred...

...Department of Energy Hanford Site in the State of Washington. The packaging, transportation, and disposal of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would use the same proven processes that have been successfully used for the pre-LOS ANGELES...

...disposal of the pre-LOS ANGELES Class submarine TRITON, which had two reactors. The scale of this work is larger for ENTERPRISE and is discussed further in section 2.1.1.3. 2.1.1 Preparations for Shipment 2.1.1.1 Liquid Removal The piping,...

...Department of Ecology agreed that this draining methodology is in compliance with WAC 173-303 (WA 1996). DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-2 Any additional draining operations could only be accomplished by performing difficult draining tasks within...

...the reactor plant would be collected, stored, processed, and disposed of as discussed in section 2.1.1 of USN 1996. For ENTERPRISE, filtered radioactive material would likely be disposed of at the US Ecology Site on the Department of Energy...

...NNPP 2010). USN 1996, section 4.1, also provides additional discussion that applies to reactor compartment disposal of ENTERPRISE. The reactor compartment packaging work would involve draining fluid systems, cutting and sealing piping,...

...components, and installing packaging and handling fixtures, similar to past reactor compartment disposals. For ENTERPRISE, the paired reactor compartments would also be separated by cutting through a structural space between the two reactor...

...rem of collective radiation exposure (to the entire workforce involved) has been estimated to prepare the eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages, or 0.1 latent cancer fatalities total based on one (1) latent cancer fatality per 2500...

...cancer fatalities) in one year as a worst case. 2.1.1.3 Equipment Removal and Package Containment The process of removing equipment and material (including hazardous material) from ENTERPRISE during reactor compartment disposal would be...

...similar to that described for DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-3 cruisers in section 2.1.1.3 of USN 1996. As described in USN 1996, asbestos is found in the insulation of pipes and other components, including the reactor plant, and would be fully...

...under Washington State law (WAC 2009) but is not regulated as a hazardous waste under federal law (40 CFR). The process of removing the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments from the ship and constructing the packages would be similar to that...

...described for cruisers in section 2.1.1.3 of USN 1996. However, ENTERPRISE can only fit into the largest dry dock at PSNS & IMF. This dry dock is normally reserved for active aircraft carrier maintenance and must remain free for that...

...work. To minimize the time required in the large aircraft carrier dry dock, interferences inside the ship in the way of the bow and deck cutting operations could be removed while ENTERPRISE is pier side....

...A barge may be positioned temporarily next to ENTERPRISE to aid in material removal while it is pier side. In the large carrier dry dock, the cut areas of hull would be resealed, external surfaces cleaned, and the ship then re-floated into...

...or temporarily placing floating barges into place at the dock entrance until the docking is complete. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be separated by cutting through a structural space between the paired reactor compartments....

...TRITON, which had two reactor compartments that shared a common wall. The scale of this work is larger for ENTERPRISE and will involve additional lead shielding removal and, as was completed for TRITON, the removal of an interfering primary...

...fixtures would be welded to the package. Figure 2.1 compares the size of various reactor compartment packages. While the packages are being constructed, the ship would be on a combination of DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-4 34' 32' 42' 38' 37'...

...42' 37' 31' 55' 42' 42' 33' 38' 33' ENTERPRISE Aircraft Carrier – 8 (2021 tons) LONG BEACH Cruiser – 2 (2250 tons) Cruisers – 16 (1400 tons) LOS ANGELES Class Submarine - 62 (1680 tons) Pre LOS ANGELES Class – about 110 (1130 tons) Figure...

...Dimensions (may be increased by up to 10%) and weights are approximate. Current projected quantities. OHIO Class Submarine – 18 (2750 tons) DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-5 blocks and track mounted cradles that are designed to support and move...

...the reactor compartments away from each other and the ship. The ENTERPRISE would be dismantled around the reactor compartments to allow for separating and packaging the reactor compartments. The remainder of the ship (remnant hull) would...

...remain in the dry dock. Dedicated material bridges from the hull to the dry dock apron would be utilized, as was done for the cruisers of USN 1996. Material would be removed from ENTERPRISE via these bridges for ultimate disposal. Services...

...and material handling equipment used for the current program would be adapted for ENTERPRISE, in sufficient quantity and capacity for the material removed. A six to eight year period in...

...for completion of the metal/material processing required for reactor compartment disposal and remnant hull recycle of ENTERPRISE. 2.1.2 Transport The Navy has transport barges that have been specially modified for transporting the pre-LOS...

...in the center of the barge. Additional structural modifications are necessary for one of the barges to transport the LONG BEACH reactor compartment packages. These modifications would precede the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal....

...This modified barge would then be used for ENTERPRISE. An additional barge may...

...be modified to provide flexibility in scheduling shipments of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments. The barges are maintained to both Navy and commercial standards and are inspected by the American Bureau of Shipping and...

...Coast Guard on a regularly scheduled basis. The same strict criteria would be used for the barge that transports the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. After the reactor compartment packages are sealed and prepared for shipment, they...

...onto the barge using the same methods as described in section 2.1.2 of USN 1996. In summary, Figure 2.2 shows the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages being loaded onto the transport barge from the side. It may be necessary to load the...

...packages onto the transport barge from the end. The same high capacity hydraulic jacks that would be used for loading the LONG BEACH reactor compartment packages would be re-used for ENTERPRISE....

...The ENTERPRISE packages would be equipped with salvage slings and associated connectors similar to the...

...cruiser packages transported under the current program. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be towed and escorted from PSNS & IMF to a...

...barge slip on the Columbia River near Richland using the same process as DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-6 RC 1A & 1B RC 2A &...

...2B RC 3A & 3B RC 4A & 4B CAISSON (TYPICAL) ENTERPRISE SHIP IS PLACED IN DRYDOCK AND THE REACTOR COMPARTMENTS ARE CUT FROM THE SHIP AND SEPARATED FOR PACKAGING. THERE ARE FOUR PAIRS OF REACTOR COMPARMENTS. CONCEPT: THE TWO REACTOR...

...DRYDOCK. THE BARGE IS PLACED IN THE DRYDOCK ALONGSIDE THE PACKAGE. THE BARGE IS LOADED AND PREPARED FOR SHIPMENT. THIS PROCESS REPEATS FOR THE REMAINING SEVEN REACTOR COMPARTMENTS. Figure 2.2. ENTERPRISE Reactor Compartment Barge Loading...

...Concept SUPPORT FIXTURES DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-7 described in section 2.1.2 of USN 1996 and used for the current program. In summary, the tow would be accompanied by a back-up tug and a Navy or Coast Guard escort vessel. Figure 2.3...

...above the water at a pool elevation of 340 feet. This height still provides over 30 feet of clearance above the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. The most restrictive overhead clearance is the Pasco, South 10th Avenue bridge (known...

...navigation light entirely. In addition, the pool height in this area can be several feet below 340 feet due to upstream dam operations, which would add to the above clearances. These clearances also assume an ENTERPRISE package height at...

...the upper DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-8 Seattle Portland OREGON Hanford Site Columbia River McNaryJohn DayBonneville The Dalles Disposal Site Port of Benton Priest Rapids...

...Chief Joseph Grand Coulee WASHINGTON Shipyard CANADA Richland Figure 2.3. Reactor Compartment Package Transport Route DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-9 end of the range provided in Figure 2.1 (42 feet plus 10% rounded up to 47 feet...

...total for conservatism). Lower package heights would add additional clearance. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be offloaded at the Port of Benton barge slip at river mile 342.8 using a method similar to that described in section...

...welds, jacking the packages and placing them on steel columns, and loading the transport vehicle. The variation for ENTERPRISE and possibly the Long Beach and Ohio packages discussed in USN 1996, involves moving the packages off the barge...

...Class, and cruiser reactor compartment packages are currently transported using a towed type transporter. The ENTERPRISE packages, along with other heavier packages from the OHIO Class and LONG BEACH, would likely use a self- propelled...

...Environmental Assessment shows an off-loading concept with a self-propelled transporter. 2.1.3 Land Transport Route The ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be transported from the Port of Benton barge slip to Trench 94 at the Hanford Site...

...extend beyond the hull, but are not considered part of the package and can be removed if necessary to allow access and placement of adjacent packages. PSNS & IMF would use ground level foundations to place the ENTERPRISE reactor...

...DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-10 150' SLIP BOTTOM BARGE SLIP HEAD WALL...

...Figure 2.4. Port of Benton ENTERPRISE Package Off-...

...loading Concept ENTERPRISE REACTOR COMPARTMENT PACKAGE TRANSPORT BARGE SELF-PROPELLED TRANSPORTER Note: Not to scale....

...Transporter length and configuration may vary. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-11 H A N F O R DS I T E Route 4 South Ro ute 2 So uth RICHLAND RATTLESNAKE MOUNTAIN ARID LANDS ECOLOGY RESERVE Route 3 Route 11A Ro ute 10 Route 4 South Army Loop Road...

...400 Area 300 Area 200 Area East 200 Area West B/C K N F H D 100 Areas Canton Ave. RIVER Wye Barricade Port of Benton 1 2 3 4 50 N Figure 2.5. Hanford Site Transport Route DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-12 Figure 2.6. Pre-LOS ANGELES Class,...

...LOS-ANGELES Class, and Cruiser Reactor Compartments in Trench 94, November 2009 DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-13 compartment packages in the configuration currently used....

...Consequently, expansion of Trench 94 is not required to accommodate the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. It is expected...

...the existing Trench 94 ramp would be used for transport of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. The current ramp provides sufficient area for a transporter to position the package for offload onto...

...The following sections discuss the applicable regulations for management, packaging, transport, and disposal of ENTERPRISE reactor compartments. 2.1.5.1 Shipyard Preparations Prior to Transport The applicable regulations for the reactor...

...effect on reactor compartment packages of the conditions of 10 CFR 71 discussed above. This analysis covers all USN 1996 packages including LONG BEACH. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be of similar size, shape, and design...

...to the LONG BEACH packages and the subject analysis would cover the ENTERPRISE packages as well....

...In summary, all packages would maintain their DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-14 integrity of containment for the conditions analyzed (i.e. ,...

...free drop, puncture test, high temperature, external pressure, water spray, vibration). The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be surveyed prior to shipment to determine radiation levels. External surface radiation levels for the...

...be cobalt-60 with 5.3 year half-life. This estimate is based on the fact that the highest contact radiation readings on cruiser packages were less than one millirem per hour and based on a comparison between ENTERPRISE and cruiser packages....

...The radioactivity inside the ENTERPRISE packages at shipment is expected to be significantly less than the cruiser packages because less activation has occurred in the reactor vessel (...

...refer to Table 1.1 and Table 1.2). Also, about ten years would elapse between shutdown of the ENTERPRISE reactor plants and shipment of the reactor compartment packages, resulting in significant short lived radioactivity decay. Ten years of...

...levels would drop correspondingly. There would be no removable or fixed radioactive contamination on the outside of the ENTERPRISE packages. 2.1.5.3 Hypothetical Accident Conditions Section 2.1.5.3 of USN 1996 provides an analysis of the...

...effect on reactor compartment packages of the hypothetical accident conditions of 10 CFR 71.73. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be of similar size, shape, and design to the...

...LONG BEACH packages of USN 1996 and the subject analysis would cover the ENTERPRISE packages as well....

...Similar to the current program, the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be designed to meet the transportation requirements for hypothetical accident conditions of transport as specified by 10 CFR 71.73. These requirements involve...

...The results are compared with 10 CFR 71.51(a)(2) requirements. Figure 2.13 of USN 1996 depicts the sequential hypothetical accident scenario of 10 CFR 71.73 and encompasses the ENTERPRISE. The conditions of an unyielding surface and a 9...

...meter (30 feet) drop would not be encountered along the transport route for the ENTERPRISE packages. Also, the regulatory assumption that the 15 cm (6 inch) steel bar is mounted on an essentially unyielding surface would not be encountered....

...water of at least 15 meters (50 feet) as specified by 10 CFR 71.73(c)(6). As a result of the engineering DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-15 analysis work discussed previously and the design of the reactor compartment packages, the packages would...

...not deform under this immersion and not exceed the radioactive material release requirements of 10 CFR 71.51. The ENTERPRISE reactor plants are contained within the shielded structural bulkheads of the ship’s reactor compartments. Like the...

...shock, but do not have the larger design margins to meet the Type B package criteria in 10 CFR 71. Therefore, the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments will similarly require a containment structure to be fabricated around the reactor compartment...

...of the limits specified in 10 CFR 71 for normal transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. Even though the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would contain quantities of radioactivity requiring the Type B level of containment...

...for release to the environment. The same processes used to safely and successfully transport the pre-LOS ANGELES Class, LOS ANGELES Class, and cruiser reactor compartment packages would be adapted for the ENTERPRISE packages. Figure...

...2.7 shows the conceptual design of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment package. As shown in Figure 2.7, structural support fixtures would be welded to the package to facilitate moving it horizontally and vertically. 2.1.5.4 Disposal Land...

...packages are in a solid, non-leachable form such as in rubber, plastic and paint, and are considered ‘PCB bulk product waste’ under 40 CFR 761. ‘PCB bulk product DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-16 Reactor Compartment Package Support Fixtures (...

...Typical) Figure 2.7. Conceptual ENTERPRISE Reactor Compartment Package Note: Figure 2.1 dimensions of 32’ by 34’ wide by 42’ high may be increased...

...by up to 10%, in particular height, to accommodate package design requirements. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-17 waste’ of the types found in reactor compartment packages may be disposed of in solid waste (municipal) landfills. Asbestos...

...facilities which store, treat, or dispose of dangerous wastes and which must be permitted by the State. The disposal of reactor compartments from a defueled, decommissioned ENTERPRISE at Trench 94 would be regulated under these sections....

...2.2 No-Action Alternative – Indefinite Waterborne Storage Under the No-Action Alternative, ENTERPRISE would be placed in waterborne storage following inactivation. This alternative would include work to prepare the ship for indefinite...

...at a designated Navy nuclear powered ship inactive storage facility. The only such facility on the west coast is at PSNS & IMF. This facility has the required water depth and area to accommodate ENTERPRISE. An existing facility on the...

...east coast at Norfolk Naval Shipyard is not considered feasible for ENTERPRISE, given the size and deep draft of the ship (requiring 37 feet of depth), dredging required at Norfolk (minimum depths at the facility are under 20 feet), and the...

...years and an extension to the 15-year dry docking was approved. The disadvantage of the No-Action Alternative for ENTERPRISE is that it only delays ultimate permanent disposal. Waterborne storage is not a permanent solution to disposing of...

...for reactor compartment disposal, or provide the time to develop and test methods and procedures for disposal and transport of the various classes of ship (e.g. , for DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-18 the heavier LONG BEACH packages)....

...Maintenance and costs would increase as ENTERPRISE ages and the hull deteriorates requiring necessary repairs to ensure watertight integrity. 2.2.1 Moorage Facility Requirements Pre-LOS ANGELES Class submarines, LOS ANGELES Class...

...the remnant ship hull recycled (LONG BEACH will also have undergone reactor compartment disposal prior to arrival of the ENTERPRISE at PSNS & IMF). There is one pre-LOS ANGELES Class submarine and several LOS ANGELES Class submarines...

...currently moored at Mooring Alpha. A study was performed in 2009 to investigate concepts and preliminary designs for mooring ENTERPRISE at Mooring Alpha (NAVFAC 2009). The results of the study determined the...

...existing structures at the storage facility have adequate capacity and the mooring fittings are well placed to moor ENTERPRISE....

...The ENTERPRISE would require a water depth of about 37 feet for moorage. The study showed that water depths are adequate based on the results of a 2007 hydrographic survey (NOAA 2007). This survey characterized the west side of Mooring...

...surveyed areas with adequate water depth and not known to have any submerged obstacles. There were three options provided in NAVFAC 2009. The option preferred by PSNS & IMF would be to moor ENTERPRISE on the west side of Mooring Alpha....

...Figure 4.1 of this Environmental Assessment (in Section 4.4) shows the ENTERPRISE moored on the west side of Mooring Alpha. The west side of Mooring Alpha has been surveyed and the water depths found to be acceptable. No dredging would be...

...and several chain equalizers. The estimated initial cost for this option was $11.2 million. It is also possible to moor ENTERPRISE on the east side of Mooring Alpha, however, this option is not preferred because it would require relocating...

...be accomplished as described in the ‘Dredging and Disposal’ discussion of section 4.3.2.1 of Volume 1 of the DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 2-19 Navy’s Pacific Fleet CVN Homeport EIS (USN 1999). In addition to this possible work, this option would...

...pretensioned mooring lines. The estimated initial cost for this option was $10.2 million, not including possible dredging costs. A third option, which involved chaining ENTERPRISE to LONG BEACH, was not considered at all since LONG BEACH is...

...scheduled to be removed from Mooring Alpha for reactor compartment disposal before ENTERPRISE arrives....

...Additional services would be required to moor ENTERPRISE at Mooring Alpha. Fire and flooding alarm systems, a dehumidification system, cathodic protection and lighting, and...

...distribution would have to be installed or upgraded since the current systems are inadequate to meet the demands of ENTERPRISE. In addition to the cost of these upgrades, there would be periodic maintenance and inspection costs associated...

...ship, including the extensive 8-year hull inspection and the 15-year dry docking inspection and repair. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-1 3. AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 3.1 Preferred Alternative The existing environment of the preferred alternative...

...for other federally listed wildlife and freshwater fish. Table 3.1 contains the list of federally DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-2 listed species that may occur in the region of PSNS & IMF and outbound along the waterborne transport route (...

...Navy Installations Marbled Murrelet USFWS Threatened Designated; Not designated on NW Navy Installations DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-3 humpback whales were sighted in the inside waters of Washington. The occurrence of humpback whales in the...

...air quality standards. Kitsap County is in attainment of the NAAQS for all seven criteria pollutants. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-4 Seismic Risk The entire Puget Sound area is seismically active. Since 1993, there have been more than 130...

...these fish return to Gorst Creek. PSNS & IMF consults with the Suquamish Tribe on matters affecting the U&A. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal would occur within the controlled secure boundary of PSNS & IMF as part of an...

...PSNS & IMF is a National Historic Landmark with a number of National Register listed buildings in the vicinity. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal would occur within the controlled industrial boundary of PSNS & IMF as part of...

...2010 the unemployment rate in Kitsap County was 7.6%, less than Washington State’s overall rate of 8.8%. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-5 TABLE 3.2 DEMOGRAPHICS AND EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS City of Bremerton Kitsap County Year 2010 Populationa,b...

...this Environmental Assessment provide additional discussion on management of hazardous materials encountered with ENTERPRISE. 3.1.2 Waterborne Transport Route The waterborne transport route follows the normal shipping lanes from PSNS &...

...Vessel Traffic System lane when transiting out the Strait of Juan de Fuca to remain in U.S. waters), DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-6 around Cape Flattery, south along the Washington coast (outside the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary...

...are satisfactory for transporting reactor compartment packages. This process would continue for shipment of the ENTERPRISE packages with no significant changes expected. The shallowest river depths encountered are about 5 meters (15 feet)...

...the Port of Benton. The depth of the barge slip can be adjusted through the control of river flow at DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-7 the upstream dam (Priest Rapids Dam) and the pool height at the downstream dam (McNary Dam) for docking barges...

...of different drafts. This is routinely done for docking barges for reactor compartment package shipments. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment package shipments are a very small part of total waterborne shipments and marine traffic transiting...

...IMF to the Port of Benton at Richland, Washington. There are no overhead interferences on the Columbia River for ENTERPRISE reactor compartment package shipments. The Hanford Reach is the only unimpounded stretch of the Columbia River in...

...within 80 km (50 mi) radius of the center of the Hanford Site according to the 2000 census (PNNL 2004). DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-8 Several areas have been set aside for special uses at the Hanford Site. The Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands...

...storms can be disregarded in determining whether an area is in attainment for atmospheric particulates. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-9 3.1.3.2 Existing Land Use Prior to 1988, the primary Hanford Site mission was the production of plutonium...

...and spoil piles. A further detailed discussion of the 200 East Area ecology can be found in PNNL 2005. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-10 3.1.3.4 Endangered Species There are several species on the Hanford Site and in the Columbia River main stem...

...Environmental Impact Statement (DOE 2009), Trench 94 and the 218-E-12B burial ground do not meet the DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-11 definition of wetlands or floodplains of 10 CFR 1022. The land transport route for the reactor compartment...

...locations, and collected data is provided in the Hanford Site Environmental Report which is published DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-12 yearly. Results from the 2009 monitoring, with emphasis on the 218-E-12B burial ground and surrounding 200...

...East Area from the west and southwest. The flow of groundwater bypasses Trench 94 due to the subsurface DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-13 basalt structure which rises above the water table, forming a divide that directs groundwater flow to the...

...powered ships. An existing facility on the east coast at Norfolk Naval Shipyard is not considered feasible for ENTERPRISE, given the size and deep draft of the ship (requiring 37 feet of depth), dredging required at Norfolk (minimum depths...

...the CIA at PSNS & IMF and is one of several piers located on the north shore of Sinclair Inlet. See Section DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 3-14 3.1.1 for a description of PSNS & IMF and Sinclair Inlet. Mooring Alpha is a fixed pier that is...

...larger ships, either cruisers or OHIO Class submarines or a combination of both. Space for cruisers would no longer be required once ex-LONG BEACH is dry docked for disposal, which is scheduled before ENTERPRISE arrives at PSNS & IMF....

...Moorage of ENTERPRISE would require the entire east or west side of Mooring Alpha depending on which option is pursued from the NAVFAC 2009 study (...

...moorage on the west side is preferred as discussed in sections 2.2.1 and 4.4 of this Environmental Assessment). ENTERPRISE would leave space for 27 LOS ANGELES Class submarines at Mooring Alpha. One OHIO Class submarine can be berthed...

...in place of two LOS ANGELES Class submarines. Additional services are required to be installed at Mooring Alpha for berthing ENTERPRISE. (i.e. fire and flooding...

...alarm systems, cathodic protection system, and electrical power). DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-1 4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES 4.1 Radiation The Navy’s policy is to minimize occupational radiation exposure to personnel. The limits invoked to...

...USN 1996, section 4.1, also provides additional discussion that remains applicable to reactor compartment disposal of ENTERPRISE. No members of the general public have received measurable radiation exposure as a result of operations of the...

...section 4.1, also provides additional discussion that remains applicable to reactor compartment disposal of ENTERPRISE. 4.2 Potential Effects of Primary Hazardous Materials found in Reactor Compartments 4.2.1 Asbestos Asbestos insulation is...

...workers and the environment. USN 1996, section 4.2.1, provides discussion of effects that remain applicable to ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal and remnant hull recycle. 4.2.2 Polychlorinated Biphenyls Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)...

...sound damping, electrical cable rubber, and in paint. Wool felt sound damping and electrical equipment DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-2 containing liquid PCBs are removed and disposed of under 40 CFR 761. Sealed containments, sealed worker suits...

...1996, section 4.2, provides additional discussion that remains applicable to reactor compartment disposal of the ENTERPRISE and remnant hull recycle. 4.2.3 Lead Lead is found shipboard primarily as canned (inside a metal jacket) radiation...

...recycles the remainder of the ship. 114 ships have undergone reactor compartment disposal and ship recycle at PSNS & IMF to date. ENTERPRISE would arrive at PSNS & IMF under Navy tow, already defueled and inactivated. PSNS & IMF...

...would dispose of the reactor compartments and recycle the remnant sections of hull from the ship. ENTERPRISE is similar in size to other aircraft carriers that the shipyard has serviced and has a volume of metal to be processed for complete...

...reactor compartment disposal and remnant hull recycle equal to about 18 submarines on average of the types typically disposed of at the Shipyard. Reactor DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-3 compartment disposal and...

...recycle of the remnant hull sections of ENTERPRISE is expected to occur over a six to eight year period with the bulk of the metal/material processing concentrated within a three to five year period. This work would represent less than...

...performed within the shipyard’s available resources (manpower, facilities, etc. ) (section 4.3.6 relates). The eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartments, when packaged, would be of similar size, shape, weight and content to those from the ex-...

...LONG BEACH, as analyzed in USN 1996. Reactor compartment disposal and recycle of the remnant hull sections of ENTERPRISE would be performed within the controlled industrial area of PSNS & IMF, consistent with the current reactor...

...management requirements, and the Coastal Zone Management Act. Docking/Re-docking As discussed in section 2.1.1.3, ENTERPRISE would initially be placed in a large carrier servicing dry dock to remove structure on top of the ship and a...

...section of the bow. To minimize the time required in the large aircraft carrier dry dock, interferences inside the ship in the way of the bow and deck cutting operations could be removed while ENTERPRISE is pier side....

...A barge may be positioned temporarily next to ENTERPRISE to aid in material removal while it is pier side. In the large carrier dry dock, the cut areas of hull would be resealed, external surfaces cleaned, and the ship then re-floated into...

...components, and installation of packaging and handling fixtures similar to past reactor compartment disposals. For ENTERPRISE, the paired reactor compartments would also be separated by cutting through a structural space between the reactor...

...from the reactor compartment by a steel bulkhead. This work would not enter the interior of the reactor DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-4 compartments where the reactor vessel is located. This separation will result in increased work adjacent to...

...rem of collective radiation exposure (to the entire workforce involved) has been estimated to prepare the eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages, or about 0.1 latent cancer fatalities total, based on one (1) latent cancer fatality...

...leaving more than 300 rem of collective exposure unused. Regardless, the 300 rem collective dose estimated for ENTERPRISE would be spread through the work force such that a workers exposure would be typically limited to 0.5 rem (0.0002...

...of a dry dock as an emission source. Section 2.1.1.3 of this Environmental Assessment discusses the reduction and dismantlement of the ENTERPRISE in order to separate the reactor compartments and clear the dry dock for loading the reactor...

...compartment packages. Extensive metal cutting would be required to reduce the ENTERPRISE for re-docking into the smaller dry dock and to separate the reactor compartments from the ship and recycle the remnant hull...

...sections (to clear the dry dock and allow loading reactor compartment packages onto a transport barge). With ENTERPRISE rising above the top of both the larger carrier and smaller reactor compartment disposal dry docks, this cutting work...

...new issue and has been dealt with for reactor compartment disposal of cruisers and submarines with tall external structures (that also project above the top of dry docks although not as extensively as for ENTERPRISE). Lessons learned...

...from these events would be applied to ENTERPRISE. Several methods could be employed to control...

...opacity, including over the ship containments with controlled exhaust or DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-5 using the external hull and top deck of the ship as a containment while gutting internal areas. Air would be drawn into this space for...

...processed, the primary source of emissions during reactor compartment disposal and remnant hull recycle, is less (for ENTERPRISE over the time period through which the work would be concentrated) than historic peak workloads at PSNS &...

...saws vice cutting torches, reduces air emissions for the same volume of metal cut/processed as compared to the past. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal would not be expected to result in a significant degradation of air quality in the...

...activities" and "the introduction of pollutants into groundwater and the City of Bremerton's sanitary sewer system." ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal is not expected to significantly impact water quality. Hazardous Material PSNS &...

...ship repair, reactor compartment disposal, and ship recycle work. Similar materials would be encountered with ENTERPRISE, namely asbestos, PCB, and lead. All work involving hazardous materials would be carried out by trained people using...

...recycled into other Navy nuclear ships or, if not needed, treated and disposed of in accordance with 40 CFR. For ENTERPRISE, processing of this liquid is expected to involve evaporation to reduce volume, reduction of hexavalent chromium to...

...trivalent chromium, and solidification of the residual liquid as a low level radioactive waste. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-6 USN 1996 estimated that 57,400 cubic feet of mixed waste, primarily as radioactive potassium chromate solution,...

...compartments disposed of to date have had their potassium chromate solution recycled into other Navy nuclear powered ships such that disposal of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be encompassed within the original 57,400 cubic...

...feet analyzed (for generated waste), even if all the solution from ENTERPRISE was not recycled and was processed as...

...mixed waste. ENTERPRISE would represent about 10% of the original 57,400 cubic feet analyzed (as generated waste). It is expected that at some point re-use (recycle) demand would drop and drained potassium chromate from reactor compartment...

...of chromates during treatment of the generated waste results in much smaller quantities of disposed mixed waste, if any. Processing of the ENTERPRISE chromate solution is expected to result in a end product for disposal that is not...

...a mixed waste. Additional Component/Material Shipment Separation of the paired ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would involve the removal of a component of the reactor plants that is placed outside the reactor compartments in an auxiliary...

...maintenance, and associated tanks that require replacement or disposal. The total number of such components for ENTERPRISE would be eight. In addition, four large tanks surrounding the reactor compartments may be disassembled and cleaned or...

...amount to less than 1% (less than 15) of the over 1500 such primary plant component shipments analyzed in section 2.3, 4.5, and Appendix E of USN 1996, under the subdivision and re-use alternative of that document. The ENTERPRISE DRAFT...

...USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-7 component shipments would not represent a significant level of effort and effect associated with the subdivision and re-use alternative of USN 1996. Section 4.3.11.5...

...4.3.2 Transport Section 2.1.2 and 3.1.1 of this Environmental Assessment describes the transport route and process. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment package shipments would be conducted in the same manner and along the same route as for the...

...an emergency position indicator beacon (triggered when submerged) and salvage equipment for the package would be used. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment package shipments, eight shipments over an about two year period, would be consistent with...

...traffic transiting into and out of the Puget Sound and the Columbia River. The only possible interaction between the ENTERPRISE package shipments and endangered species, other than incidental as a normal part of marine/river traffic, is...

...Benton. The Port of Benton barge slip, used for off-loading all reactor compartment packages, would be used for ENTERPRISE. The Navy holds an Army Corps of Engineers permit for in-water maintenance and activity at this barge slip to support...

...the above determination have occurred to date. As discussed in section 2.1.2, a modified transport barge to be used for the LONG BEACH reactor compartment package shipments would then be used for ENTERPRISE as well. An additional barge...

...may be modified to provide flexibility in scheduling shipments of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments. Although not required, this additional barge would thus be useful. This decision hinges on whether a suitable barge of sufficient size,...

...of this type, it is expected that the slip modifications could be conducted within a ‘not likely to adversely affect determination’ under the Endangered Species Act with no significant environmental impact. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-8 As...

...discussed in section 2.1.2, ENTERPRISE reactor compartments, and possibly other heavier packages of USN 1996, may be off-loaded at the barge slip using a variation of the current method, where the package is moved off the barge to land and...

...determination’ under the Endangered Species Act with no significant environmental impact. Land transport of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be conducted along the same route that is used for the current reactor compartment...

...and maintenance but would not require widening into the buffer area. It is expected that shipment of the eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would occur over a two (2) to 2 ½ year period, consistent with the current expected...

...of reactor compartments from other ships may be deferred during the time that PSNS & IMF is processing the ENTERPRISE. Effects to the environment from transport, such as from emissions from vessels and vehicles participating in the...

...at Hanford (Bodman 2006). USN 1996 provides a cumulative analysis of 220 reactor compartment packages at Trench 94. This analysis encompasses the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments because these compartments are similar in content to...

...reactor compartments already evaluated and do not cause DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-9 the total number within the trench to exceed 220. Radioactivity contained within Trench 94...

...significant cumulative effect relative to Hanford Site wastes discussed in DOE 2009. 4.3.3.1 Extreme Natural Phenomena ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be constructed of steel about two inches thick, with additional layers of...

...at Hanford. USN 1996, section 4.3.3.1 provides additional analysis of potential phenomena that remains applicable to ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. 4.3.3.2 Radiological Effects 4.3.3.2.1 External Radiation Upon Disposal Radiation...

...to an average of 300 millirem per year (0.3 rem/yr) of natural source exposure from cosmic rays, rocks, etc. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages are expected to be similar to the cruiser packages in this regard and likely will have...

...of USN 1996 provides additional details valid for all Navy reactor compartments. 4.3.3.2.2 Corrosion Performance The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would exhibit the same corrosion performance as discussed in section 4.3.3.2 and...

...Trench 94 would be at least 600 years after burial as a worst case and more likely, at least 2000 years or more. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages are more robust than the reactor compartment package structure responsible for the...

...centimeter square area) as a worst case for the alloys commonly used. It is also possible that these alloys DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-10 may not corrode at all at Trench 94, because of the high resistivity, low chloride and sulfate content,...

...occurs due to the very slow corrosion based release mechanism. 4.3.3.3 Site Specific Migration Studies The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would exhibit the same performance after burial as discussed in section 4.3.3.2, 4.3.3.3, and...

...and perform similarly under corrosion and burial as described in USN 1996. All of these conditions are met by the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. Sections 4.3.3.2.1.3 and 4.3.3.3.2 of USN 1996 discusses how the PNNL studies are...

...to accommodate 220 reactor compartment packages without need for new land commitment. This analysis encompasses the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages because they are similar in content to the reactor compartment packages of USN 1996...

...115 years at the 200 East area for a 5 cm/yr recharge. Similarly, the PNNL studies predict a 500 year DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-11 transit time for a 0.5 cm/yr recharge, with DOE 2009 estimating 1240 years for a 0.35 cm/yr recharge . Upon...

...trench soil under gravity flow. These tests verified the adsorption predicted. Use of the 1200 ml/g Kd DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-12 resulted in the 240,000 year time frame for lead migration to the aquifer under the ‘wetter’ climate case (...

...be adsorbed onto soil particles. Section 4.3.3.2.1.4 of USN 1996 provides additional detail that remains applicable to ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages. 4.3.3.5 Population Radiation Dose Section 4.3.3.2.1.5 of USN 1996 discusses the...

...lived radioactivity that could be released by the 220 reactor compartment packages at Trench 94, and encompasses ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages at Trench 94. In summary, the maximum collective dose to the future population over...

...4.3.3.6 Other Constituents Available for Migration PCB Navy reactor compartment packages, including those from the ENTERPRISE, would be considered ‘PCB bulk product waste’ under 40 CFR 761. These packages contain PCBs in solid formulation...

...such as rubber, dried glue and paint, and plastic. ‘PCB bulk product waste’ of the types found in the DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-13 reactor compartment packages may be disposed of in solid waste (municipal) landfills. Disposal in a reactor...

...oily/waxy substance containing PCB that does not meet the criteria for PCB bulk product waste under 40 CFR 761. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartments are not expected to contain the wool felt sound damping, but this material would be removed...

...Hexavalent chromium is considered harmful and is regulated. A Navy reactor compartment, including those from the ENTERPRISE, may contain up to two pounds at most of hexavalent chromium, permanently bound into a liquid absorbent material...

...2.1 of this Environmental Assessment. Section 4.3.3.4.1 of USN 1996 provides additional detail. 4.3.3.7 Land Commitment No additional land commitment is required for disposal of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages at Trench 94....

...Trench 94 would accommodate the 220 reactor compartment packages currently considered, including ENTERPRISE. 4.3.4 Cumulative Effects As discussed in section 4.3.1 of this Environmental Assessment, about...

...300 rem of collective radiation exposure (to the entire workforce involved) has been estimated to prepare the eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages, or about 0.1 latent...

...cancer fatalities total, based on DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-14 one (1) latent cancer fatality per 2500 rem of worker exposure. However, history shows that such estimates have been improved on significantly, by lowered collective exposure....

...be spread through the work force such that a workers exposure would be limited to 0.5 rem (0.0002 latent cancer fatalities) per year. In the short term (next 10-15 years), ENTERPRISE can be considered to substitute for other USN 1996 class...

...reactor compartment disposals that may be deferred to accommodate the ENTERPRISE work. Both tempo and intensity of work would remain...

...within historic norms for environmental effects to the Shipyard. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be within the size, shape, weight, and content of those defined in USN 1996, and would be prepared and transported similarly,...

...of shipments per year and timing of shipments being comparable to past years and within historic peak workloads. The ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages would be as robust as other Navy reactor compartment packages and transported using...

...reactor compartment package being breached by corrosion. Table 1.2 of this Environmental Assessment shows that total ENTERPRISE reactor compartment long lived activity represents from & lt; 1% to 3 % of the total long lived radioactivity...

...of long lived radioactivity from Navy reactor compartments. This discussion remains valid for inclusion of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments at Trench 94. In summary, long lived radioactivity would not be released in more than negligible...

...is substantial. Table B-3 of USN 1996 shows < 0.1% of the original carbon-14 content (and < DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-15 0.2% of technetium-99) in a reactor compartment is released over a 10,000 year time frame starting after the...

...applying the discussion of the previous paragraph, less than 0.005 curies of carbon-14 would be released from the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments (all of them combined), and less than 1 curie from Trench 94 entirely, over a 10,000 year time...

...technetium-99 released. In comparison, less than 0.0002 curies of technetium-99 would be released from all the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments, and less than 0.02 curies from Trench 94 entirely, over the same 10,000 year time span starting...

...structure of the reactor vessel is accessed (as discussed for carbon-14). 4.3.5 Air Effects As discussed in section 4.3.1-4.3.3, ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal should not result in a significant change to air quality both at...

...and around the shipyard and from shipment and disposal at Hanford. ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal would not represent a new or significantly different line of work for the Shipyard, with different effects on the environment, but...

...tugboats) are a very small part of overall river and road traffic. 4.3.6 Socioeconomics and Environmental Justice ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal involves no socioeconomic change in any of the involved regions because it continues...

...on-going, and limits this work to within historic peaks at the shipyard. Significant changes in workforce due to ENTERPRISE are not expected as the work would occur within the fixed capacity of the Shipyard given other on-going repair...

...work, and expected attrition through retirement and resignation, balanced by normal make-up hiring. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA...

...4-16 ENTERPRISE reactor compartment disposal would not require land expansion of the shipyard and would not affect the status-quo that has existed for many decades of the shipyard safely performing Navy nuclear repair work with reactor...

...in 2010 dollars by two methods. USN 1996 estimated $1.5 billion for the preferred alternative. By comparison, the ENTERPRISE displacement at 76,000 tons empty is 15% of the total displacement of all ships considered in USN 1996. Adjusting...

...the $1.5 billion to 15% and escalating 1996 dollars to 2010 dollars yields about $400 million. Alternatively, ENTERPRISE disposal is roughly expected to require 850,000 man-days of work at PSNS & IMF for a total cost between $300...

...to USN 1996 and permit application documents submitted to the State of Washington, to be protective to the environment for very long times approaching geologic age. This conclusion encompasses the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages....

...Separation of the paired ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would involve increased cutting and removal of shielding lead vice more typical package work; however, lead...

...shielding was cut and removed similarly for the TRITON paired reactor compartment preparation. For ENTERPRISE, the scale of this work would be larger...

...than for TRITON, but would still DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-17 represent the removal of a fraction of the total amount of lead shielding found around the reactor compartments. The reactor compartment separation involves cutting through a...

...and removal is reflected in the about 300 rem total exposure estimate for the reactor compartment disposal of ENTERPRISE (discussed in section 4.3.1). Appendix A, Table A.1 of USN 1996 presents estimated cost and worker radiation exposure...

...for the removal of all lead from the two LONG BEACH packages. These packages are similar to those formed by separating the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments. Based on...

...the LONG BEACH data, removal of all lead from the ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would result in a collective worker exposure at least four times higher than estimated for the reactor compartment disposal alone (an increase to 1200 rem or...

...an increase to $800 - $1000 million). 4.3.7.3 Long Lived Radioactivity Table 1.2 provides a comparison of long lived radioactivity in ENTERPRISE reactor compartments to that found in reactor compartments analyzed in USN 1996. Virtually...

...all (99.9%) of this radioactivity is in irradiated structure in the reactor vessel. ENTERPRISE long lived radioactivity is at the low end of the ranges provided in Table 1.2 (...

...of this Environmental Assessment) for the USN 1996 reactor compartments. ENTERPRISE reactor compartments would be well below Class C limits for radioactivity concentration fractions from 10 CFR 61. Appendix D of USN 1996...

...of the formation, location and calculation of long lived radioactivity in Navy reactor compartments. This discussion remains applicable to the ENTERPRISE. 4.3.7.4 Shallow Land Burial Appendix B of USN 1996 evaluates the amount of long lived...

...buried reactor compartment packages and related reasonable intruder scenarios. This analysis encompasses the ENTERPRISE as all Navy reactor compartment packages share common burial performance characteristics (i.e. , similar construction,...

...Less than 0.02% (0.0002 of 1) of combined nickel-63, nickel-59, niobium-94, carbon-14, and technetium-99 are released, and DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-18 most of the nickel and niobium radioactivity is bound into the soil. Even for very long...

...99, less than 6% is released and this quantity is very low, given a total of 0.06 curies for all eight of the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages (6% of this would be 0.004 curies), as compared to hundreds of curies already released...

...B of USN 1996 discusses plausible intruder scenarios. Exhumation of Navy reactor compartment packages, including ENTERPRISE, at sufficient future time to allow access into the reactor vessel would not likely result in exceeding a 500...

...25 millirem/yr limit of 10 CFR 61. The 10 CFR 61 Subpart C performance objectives would be met by disposal of ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages in Trench 94. Specifically, during site operations, external radiation would be minimal,...

...workers associated with shipment of Navy reactor compartment packages to Hanford. Only the case of shipment of a whole reactor compartment from PSNS & IMF to Hanford by the same route of current shipments is considered for ENTERPRISE....

...The reactor compartment packages for ENTERPRISE would be represented in size and shape by those of the ex-LONG BEACH. From Table E-11 of USN 1996, for...

...results in less than 0.003 latent cancer fatalities for a general population or transportation crew. For eight ENTERPRISE reactor compartment package shipments, latent cancer fatalities would be correspondingly lower, at less than 0.0003....

...As noted in section 4.3.1 of this Environmental Assessment, the shipments of eight ENTERPRISE primary plant components and several tank sections as radioactive waste would amount to less than 1% of the shipments analyzed in Appendix E of...

...fatalities above. A hypothetical accident scenario from section 7.7 of Appendix E of USN 1996 results in less than 0.0005 latent cancer fatalities. This scenario would include the ENTERPRISE reactor compartment packages and involve a barge...

...transport accident penetrating the reactor DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-19 compartment package. This penetration would penetrate the shell of a relatively small component inside the reactor compartment that contains ion exchange resin with...

...Maintenance Facility No major modifications in the current facilities at the PSNS & IMF waterborne storage facility for nuclear-powered ships are expected to be required to moor ENTERPRISE. Existing structures at Mooring Alpha have...

...adequate capacity and the mooring fittings are well placed to moor ENTERPRISE....

...Mooring ENTERPRISE would require the entire east or west side of Mooring Alpha depending on which option is pursued from the NAVFAC 2009 study. This leaves space for 27 LOS ANGELES Class submarines on the other side of Mooring...

...submarines. Figure 4.1 shows a conceptual mooring layout for indefinite waterborne storage at PSNS & IMF with ENTERPRISE located on the west side of Mooring Alpha. As discussed in section 2.2.1, this option is preferred by PSNS &...

...this option is that ships presently at Mooring Alpha would not have to be relocated. It is also possible to moor ENTERPRISE on the east side of Mooring Alpha, however, this option is not preferred because it would require relocating ships...

...water depth. Because surrounding areas have acceptable water depth and no submerged obstacles, dredging would be considered as not likely to occur and should be, if required, of a limited nature with DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-20 Figure 4.1....

...PSNS & IMF Conceptual ENTERPRISE Mooring Arrangement...

...DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-21 only local disturbance. However, enough uncertainty exists such that the potential effects of using this area cannot be fully defined at this time. Any such dredging would be accomplished as described in...

...EIS (USN 1999). At Mooring Alpha, in very extreme low water events, (for west or east side moorage), the stern of ENTERPRISE may settle slightly into the sediment. The sediment at the site tends to be very soft so it is reasonable to allow...

...area of the Suquamish Tribe. A floating port security barrier cordons off the controlled industrial area from waters outside that are fished. The ENTERPRISE can be moored within the existing location of the security barrier (for west or...

...east side moorage). Additional services would be required to moor ENTERPRISE at Mooring Alpha. Fire and flooding alarm systems, a dehumidification system, cathodic protection...

...and lighting would be required for the ship. Expansion of these services for ENTERPRISE are an extension of what currently exists and would have no significant impact to the environment. Hull preservation would be accomplished at about 15...

...impact. It is possible for the Shipyard’s disposal workload to decrease under the No-Action Alternative where ENTERPRISE is placed in waterborne storage. It is also possible for the decrease to be great enough that redistribution of work is...

...The degree of this impact would be related to how much other work would become available to substitute for the ENTERPRISE disposal, and this would be related to future unidentified budgetary and military needs. 4.4.2 Extreme Natural...

...Puget Sound dampens the propagation of large distantly generated tsunamis. A large earthquake of local DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-22 origin (e.g. , magnitude 7 on the Seattle Fault) is estimated to produce a tsunami of about 1.5 meters (5...

...fronts (KOSHIMURA 2005). Even if this wave occurred at high tides, the wave should not be sufficient to lift the ENTERPRISE with its 33 foot draft onto land. Grounding in shallow water near shore and adjacent pier damage could result if the...

...is designed to withstand battle shocks. 4.4.3 Radiological Effects The radiation exposure rate at the surface of the ENTERPRISE hull is generally below one millirem per hour. However, localized spots of elevated rates (less than 10 millirem...

...at the fence to the storage area or at the PSNS & IMF boundary. The radioactivity contained in defueled ENTERPRISE is in the form of solid activated metal corrosion products and solid activated metal contained within the reactor plant....

...essentially no risk of radiation exposure to anyone in the general public as a result of waterborne storage of ENTERPRISE since the radiation dose rate outside the reactor compartments would be well below the federal transportation limits...

...specified in Part 173 of Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR 173). Additionally, the designated storage area would be fenced and within the security confines of PSNS & IMF. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 4-23 4.4.4 Hazardous Material...

...Effects The inactivated, defueled, and decommissioned ENTERPRISE is expected to contain regulated quantities of lead shielding, asbestos, and solid PCBs which would be contained within the ship’s hull. Sea connections would be blanked and...

...ship’s hull and methods used for securing ships would maintain the containment barrier to keep contaminants out of the environment. As discussed in section 4.4, dredging is not required to moor ENTERPRISE on the west side of Mooring Alpha....

...This is the preferred option for mooring ENTERPRISE. Use of the east side of Mooring Alpha is possible but not preferred, and may require limited dredging if an unexpected rise in the bottom contour is discovered upon removal of the...

...4.4.6 Other Facilities An existing facility on the east coast at Norfolk Naval Shipyard is not considered feasible for ENTERPRISE, given the size and deep draft of the ship (requiring 37 feet of depth), dredging required at Norfolk (minimum...

...are under 20 feet), and the need to move the ship to PSNS & IMF for reactor compartment disposal. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA 5-1 5. LIST OF PREPARERS AUTHORS Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility John A....

...Engineering, 22 years of experience Jacqueline R. Allen, BS in Civil Engineering, 13 years of experience DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA R-1 REFERENCES BODMAN 2006 Legal Settlement Agreement re: State of Washington v. Bodman, Docket Civil No. 2:03-...

...2010 Information), PNNL-19455, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, September 2010. DRAFT USS ENTERPRISE EA R-3 REFERENCES (Continued) USN 1984 Final Environmental Impact Statement on the Disposal of Decommissioned,...

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3Title:  USS Enterprise at Newport News shipyard Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise at Newport News, Virginia. The Enterprise is powered by eight nuclear reactors. Congress appropriated Enterprise in 1958; its construction cost was approximately 472 million dollars. High construction and operating costs for nuclear (relative to conventional) carriers led to a decade-long delay in the construction of additional nuclear-powered carriers. 
 Source:  http://www.cvn65.us/us_navy_photos_1.htm 
 Date:   1961 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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4Title:  USS Enterprise in the Atlantic Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise at sea in 2011. The Enterprise had her final deployment in 2012 and was deactivated in 2013. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=96471 
 Date:  17 January 2011 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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5Title:  Stern view of the USS Enterprise Add
 Summary:  Stern view of USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which is powered by eight A2W reactors and four propulsion plants/shafts. The Enterprise is shown during an ordnance onload in the Atlantic Ocean. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=11480 
 Date:  31 October 2003 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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6Title:  USS Enterprise during flight operations Add
 Summary:  View of the USS Enterprise (CVN-65), the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. This 2010 photo shows the Enterprise during flight operations in the Atlantic Ocean. The ship, which was powered by eight A2W reactors, was decommissioned in 2013. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=90286 
 Date:  12 August 2010 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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7Title:  USS Enterprise in 1967 Add
 Summary:  The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise, in 1967. On 5 January 1968, the Enterprise was followed by a detected November-class Soviet submarine at a sustained speed of 31 knots. This incident, which illustrated the growing potential of Soviet nuclear-powered attack submarines, spurred the development and commissioning of a new class of high-speed attack submarines. The submarines in this class, starting with the USS Los Angeles (SSN-688), were powered by the S6G reactor plant. 
 Source:  http://www.sproston.com/enterprise.htm 
 Reference:  Tyler, Patrick. Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover, and General Dynamics. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. pages 17-52. 
 Date:   1967 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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8Title:  The Enterprise steams in the Atlantic Ocean Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean. The Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was inactivated in 2013. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=93082 
 Date:  19 October 2010 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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9Title:  The Enterprise and the USS George H.W. Bush Add
 Summary:  The oldest and newest nuclear-powered carriers (Enterprise/left, George H.W. Bush/right) docked at Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=94745 
 Date:  30 November 2010 
 Subject(s):  A2W | A4W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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10Title:  USS Enterprise and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower in 2011 Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise (foreground) and the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower off the Virginia coast, as Enterprise returns from a six-month deployment. The Enterprise was deactivated in 2013. The Nimitz-class carrier Eisenhower, powered by two A4W reactors, was commissioned in 1977, 16 years after the Enterprise entered service. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=104147 
 Date:  14 July 2011 
 Subject(s):  A2W | A4W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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