720 Naval Reactors History Database (f1-type=Image) Results for your query: f1-type=Image Sun, 01 Jan 1956 12:00:00 GMT A1W under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. The A1W prototype, under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. Heat-dissipating spray ponds used by the S1W prototype are visible in the foreground. A1W was a two reactor, one steam plant/shaft prototype plant, parallel to one of the Enterprise's four propulsion plants. Construction of the A1W prototype began in the spring of 1956; first criticality for the first of its two reactors was achieved in October 1958. As with the S1W plant and the Nautilus, the design and construction of the A1W prototype slightly led that of the USS Enterprise. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Admiral Rickover just outside of the S1W hull entrance. Admiral Hyman Rickover (at center of group) at a hull entrance for the Mark I, or S1W, reactor plant. The S1W (the Nautilus prototype) achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953; two months later, reactor power was used to drive the prototype's shaft. Rickover then ordered a continuous 100 hour run of the S1W propulsion plant that demonstrated beyond question the revolutionary impact that nuclear propulsion would have upon submarines. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Aerial view of General Dynamics Electric Boat. An aerial photo of the General Dynamics Electric Boat yard in Groton, Connecticut. Electric Boat designed and built the first two nuclear submarines, the Nautilus and the Seawolf, and served as the lead yard for the early nuclear submarine classes, such as Skate and Skipjack. Electric Boat continues its pivotal role in submarine design and construction, including its lead yard responsibility for the USS Virginia (SSN-774) class of attack submarines. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Aerial view of the S1C prototype plant. An aerial view of the S1C prototype plant building. The S1C was the prototype for the Tullibee (SSN-597), a small (approximately 2,300 tons displacement) hunter-killer submarine. The plant was designed and constructed by Combustion Engineering and was located at the company's plant in Windsor, Connecticut. The plant's design was unique in that steam turbines powered an electric propulsion motor, as opposed to a set of reduction gears. Thu, 01 Jan 1987 12:00:00 GMT Aerial view of the S1W prototype building. An aerial view of the S1W prototype building, located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S1W (or Mark I) plant was the world's first power reactor; it used pressurized water as both coolant and moderator. S1W served as the prototype plant for the USS Nautilus, and as a testing and training plant for the Naval Reactors program until 1989. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Artist's conception of CVN 21-class carrier. An artist's concept of a CVN 21 reactor, the first of which will be the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), scheduled for commissioning in 2015. The CVN 21 carriers will be powered by two A1B reactor plants, the successor to the A4W plant. Fri, 08 Jul 2005 12:00:00 GMT Artist's conception of the USS Thresher, showing location of torpedo tubes. An artist's conception of the USS Thresher firing torpedoes from its midships torpedo tubes. Since the Thresher's sonar equipment was located in the bow, her four torpedo tubes were placed further back in the hull. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Babcock & Wilcox U-shell design steam generator. One of the two Babcock & Wilcox Company U-shell steam generators being placed in a boiler room at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Each steam generator contained 921 stainless steel tubes, with an outside diameter of 3/4 inch. The U-shaped shells were 38 inches in diameter. It had two hemispherical heads with pipe connections through which primary coolant entered and exited the steam generator. Wed, 12 Sep 1956 12:00:00 GMT Bow shot of USS Los Angeles at sea. The USS Los Angeles at sea in 1982. Planning for the Los Angeles-class submarines began in the mid-1960s; the sub class "would have the speed to escort fast surface-strike forces and convoys, protecting them against hostile submarines, and to seek out and destroy enemy missile submarines" (27). The Los Angeles, lead boat in her class, was commissioned in November 1976. Wed, 01 Dec 1982 12:00:00 GMT Brass pipe recovered from wreckage of USS Thresher. Photograph of a brass pipe recovered from the wreckage of the USS Thresher in 1963. The pipe was recovered by the bathyscaph Trieste, and it has the information "593 Boat" etched on the pipe. The Thresher was lost on 10 April 1963, with the loss of 129 crewmen and civilian workers. A court of inquiry determined that the most probable cause of the Thresher's loss was a seawater leak that led to a loss of electrical and propulsion power. Tue, 01 Jan 1963 12:00:00 GMT Containment structure built for the S1G prototype plant. The containment building built for the sodium-cooled, intermediate range S1G reactor plant in West Milton, New York. In January 1952, the Atomic Energy Commission's Reactor Safeguards Committee approved the construction of the S1G reactor at West Milton, provided the reactor was enclosed in a containment sphere. The 225 foot sphere, composed of one inch steel plates, was designed to contain any radioactivity release. After the sodium-cooled approach was abandoned by Naval Reactors, the S1G plant was decommissioned. The sphere was later used to house the D1G pressurized water reactor/prototype plant. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Downcomers and risers piping, Shippingport secondary plant. Piping for downcomers and risers in the B loop of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. These pipes connected the loop's Babcock & Wilcox U-shell steam generator with a steam drum, and through the steam drum with the plant's secondary system. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The Eisenhower (CVN-69), second Nimitz-class carrier. The USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) being guided to its berth at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. The Eisenhower is the second Nimitz-class carrier and is powered by two A4W reactors. Wed, 08 Sep 2010 12:00:00 GMT The Enterprise and the USS George H.W. Bush. The oldest and newest nuclear-powered carriers (Enterprise/left, George H.W. Bush/right) docked at Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia. Tue, 30 Nov 2010 12:00:00 GMT The Enterprise steams in the Atlantic Ocean. The USS Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean. The Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was inactivated in 2013. Tue, 19 Oct 2010 12:00:00 GMT The Expended Core Facility (ECF) under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. The Expended Core Facility under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S1W building is visible in the background. The ECF was designed to support the processing of spent fuel cores starting with the initial core of the USS Nautilus, which was removed from the vessel in early 1957. Inside the ECF, cores are moved from one water pit workstation to another; its size was expanded from an initial 340 feet to over 1,000 feet in length. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Exterior view of the A1W (Enterprise prototype) at the Idaho National Laboratory. The A1W prototype (center) at the Idaho National Laboratory. Construction began on the A1W in April 1956; the prototype consisted of two reactors and the steam plant equipment necessary to drive one shaft. The first A1W reactor reached full power on 17 January 1959 and both reactors operatored together at full power for the first time on 15 September 1959. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Exterior view of the A1W prototype, Idaho National Laboratory. An exterior view of the A1W prototype plant at the Idaho National Laboratory. A1W was the prototype for the Enterprise A2W shipboard reactor plants; the prototype contained two reactors and the steam plant equipment to power one shaft. Data from the A1W prototype were also used in the design of the C1W reactor plant, which powered the USS Long Beach. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Foster Wheeler straight tube steam generator. One of the two Foster Wheeler straight tube steam generators being placed in a boiler room in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Each generator contained 2,096 stainless steel tubes, with each tube having an outer diameter of one-half inch. The heads of the steam generator each had 18 inch pipe connections to the secondary system. Sun, 10 Aug 1958 12:00:00 GMT The George Washington - ballistic missile submarine. The USS George Washington (SSBN-598), the world's first ballistic missile submarine, being launched at Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut in 1959. Because of the national security urgency of building a less-vulnerable missile system, the construction of the George Washington was expedited by using the bow and stern sections of the of the under-construction Scorpion, and inserting a 130 foot missile section between the two sections. She was powered by the submarine fleet reactor plant, the S5W. Tue, 09 Jun 1959 12:00:00 GMT The George Washington underway. The USS George Washington, the first Polaris missile submarine. The George Washington was the lead boat in her class and was powered by an S5W reactor plant. In November 1960, the she began submerged patrols, providing the United States with a secure ballistic missile capability. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT HMS Dreadnought, first British nuclear submarine. The HMS Dreadnought, the first British nuclear-powered submarine. In both her overall design and propulsion plant, the Dreadnought mirrored the six United States submarines of the Skipjack class. The Dreadnought was powered by an S5W reactor; Westinghouse worked with the British manufacturer Rolls Royce on the construction of the propulsion plant. Electric Boat provided assistance to the Vickers-Armstrong Limited shipyard for the submarine's construction. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Hunter-killer submarine USS Tullibee. The USS Tullibee returns from her initial sea trials in the fall of 1960. The sub's propulsion plant was designed for quiet operation, which was achieved by the elimination of reduction gears and the use of an electric propulsion system for all operations. Historian Francis Duncan notes that while the plant's design did result in a quieter propulsion system ("the quietest nuclear platform the Navy had"), it had its downside as well - a larger and heavier propulsion plant (23). Both the S1C prototype and the S2C reactor plant, installed on the Tullibee, were designed by Combustion Engineering; the Atomic Energy Commission awarded the projects to C-E in order to "broaden industrial participation in the [Naval Reactors] program" beyond Westinghouse and General Electric (23). Mon, 03 Oct 1960 12:00:00 GMT Infrastructure - Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. This diagram describes the work of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, a joint Department of Energy and Navy program. Naval Reactors is "responsible for design, development, operation, and disposal of Naval nuclear propulsion plants." The program's training includes Naval Nuclear Power School (theoretical training) and prototype training, which is currently conducted on board moored ships and at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory's Kesselring site. NR oversees the work performed by public and private shipyards and contractual relationships with hundreds of specialized vendors. It also works with two major laboratories, Bettis and Knolls. This chart underscores the complexity of NR and the fact that its available infrastructure is managed by a relatively small central organization. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Instructions to bring Shippingport power breeder to 100 percent reactor power. An image showing President Jimmy Carter's instructions on 2 December 1987 to operators at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station to "increase light-water breeder reactor power to 100%" (191). Carter issued the order from the White House in a ceremony attended by Secretary of Energy James Schlesinger, Admiral Hyman Rickover, and other Naval Reactors officials; it marked the beginning of routine operations at the Shippingport plant following its conversion to a breeder reactor. The core, which generated more fuel than it consumed, was composed of U-233 and Thorium. Fri, 02 Dec 1977 12:00:00 GMT Irradiated core materials received at the Expended Core Facility. Workers on the defueling platform at the Expended Core Facility (ECF), located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Rail cars enter the ECF and the transfer cask shown in the photo (just above the workers) is used to hoist expended fuel into a water pit, where processing begins. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Launch of the NR-1 submersible research vehicle. The NR-1 nuclear submarine slides down the building ways at Electric Boat (division of General Dynamics). NR-1 was used as a deep sea exploration and recovery vehicle. Sat, 25 Jan 1969 12:00:00 GMT Launch of the USS Narwhal at Electric Boat. The launch of the USS Narwhal, which was powered by the S5G natural circulation reactor. The Narwhal was built concurrently with the design, construction, and operation of the S5G prototype reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory. She was commissioned in June of 1969. As historian Richard Duncan notes, "although the natural-circulation reactor was successful, the navy built no more ships of [the Narwhal] class" (27). Sat, 09 Sep 1967 12:00:00 GMT Launch of the USS Skipjack. The launch of the USS Skipjack, lead boat in her class. The Skipjack incorporated a new hull design to improve her underwater speed, through a decrease in the length-to-beam ratio (making the boat both shorter and wider compared with nuclear submarines such as the Nautilus and Skate). The Skipjack was the first submarine powered by the S5W reactor plant, which became the Navy's submarine fleet reactor, used to drive both attack and ballistic missile submarines. Mon, 26 May 1958 12:00:00 GMT Lower section of plant pressurizer, Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The lower section of the pressurizer at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. In a pressurized water reactor plant, the pressurizer is used to maintain satisfactory operating pressure. Primary pressure in increased through the operation of the removable heating elements visible on the right side of the pressurizer. Pressure is reduced through a spray nozzle at the top of the unit. The pressurizer is connected to the primary coolant system through the surge line (entering the bottom of the pressurizer) and the spray line (entering at the top). During normal power operations, steam is present above the pressurizer's water volume. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main control console at Shippingport (looking north). The main control console for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. While the Naval Reactors organization, working with Westinghouse, led the design and development of the Shippingport reactor, some aspects of the plant - such as the large size of the control panels and the use of concrete for shielding - were quite different when compared with the submarine reactor plants that had been designed and built under NR's oversight. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main control console at Shippingport (looking south). A view of the control room at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, with the reactor control panel on the left and the turbine control panel in the center. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main coolant pump, lower section, at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. A reactor coolant pump at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The pump circulated water (which served as both coolant and moderator in the pressurized water reactor plant) through the core and the steam generator. One centrifugal pump was installed in each of the plant's four reactor coolant loops. Each pump had two operating speeds, to save electrical power when the plant was operated at below 50% reactor power. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main coolant pump removed from operation. A reactor coolant pump removed from operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Shippingport reactor used four reactor coolant pumps, one for each primary loop. The single-stage, leak proof centrifugal pump supported the flow of coolant in the primary system; in addition to the coolant flow through the pump, lower temperature water circulated within the pump to remove heat and lubricate the motor bearings. The pump was powered by a 2,300 volt electric motor that supported full-speed and half-speed operations. Fri, 08 May 1964 12:00:00 GMT Map showing the location of Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. This map shows a section of the Idaho National Laboratory, including the location of the Naval Reactors Facility. In 1965, NRF included the S1W and A1W prototype plants, along with the recently-built S5G prototype and the Expended Core Facility (ECF); the latter two facilities are noted on the map. Thu, 11 Mar 1965 12:00:00 GMT Missile tubes in USS Sam Rayburn. The USS Sam Rayburn during her service as a ballistic missile submarine. The submarine was decommissioned in 1989 and converted to a moored training S5W prototype facility. The Sam Rayburn is currently moored at Naval Weapons Station Charleston. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Monitoring equipment outside S1W hull. Navy and civilian operators with monitoring equipment at the aft end of the S1W propulsion plant. The S1W's water brake, which absorbed the shaft power, can be seen directly behind the monitoring panel. The aft end of the hull is visible at left. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The Nautilus approaches New York City, 1958. The USS Nautilus, following the successful completion of her 1958 transpolar voyage. Admiral Hyman Rickover's joint Navy/Atomic Energy Commission organization led the creation of the Nautilus. Under Naval Reactors, Westinghouse was responsible for the design and construction of the land-based S1W prototype reactor plant and the S2W plant that powered the Nautilus. Electric Boat constructed the Nautilus and was a subcontractor to Westinghouse for construction of the S1W prototype's hull. Mon, 25 Aug 1958 12:00:00 GMT Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. An aerial view of the Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. NRF was the site of the S1W, A1W, and S5G prototypes. The site's Expended Core Facility remains open to support the processing of spent fuel from United States naval reactors. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT NR-1 control and instrument panels. Interior of NR-1, showing the submarine's instrument and control panels. NR-1 was powered by a small, low-power pressurized water reactor. The submarine was capable of speeds of 3.5 knots per hour when submerged, and had forward and aft wheels, enabling her to work on the ocean floor. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The NR-1 research vessel. The NR-1 nuclear submarine at Port Canaveral, Florida. NR-1 was a small, deep-diving submarine that was designed to operate on the ocean floor.The submarine's low-power reactor was designed by General Electric and could be operated by a single crewman. Wed, 01 Feb 2006 12:00:00 GMT Nuclear Power Training Unit, Charleston. The Nuclear Power Training Unit facility located at the Naval Weapons Station in Charleston, South Carolina. Graduates of Naval Nuclear Power School are assigned to qualify at a prototype plant in Charleston and in Ballston Spa, New York. The two prototypes at NPTU Charleston are moored submarines, both of which have S5W reactor plants. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Nuclear-powered surface task force underway. The first nuclear-powered surface task force at sea, including the Enterprise, Long Beach, and Bainbridge. Later in 1964, the three ships performed a global circumnavigation as part of Operation Sea Orbit. Thu, 18 Jun 1964 12:00:00 GMT Packaged, defueled submarine reactor compartments at the Hanford Site. The defueled and packaged reactor compartments removed from decommissioned submarines are stored in trench 94 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The compartments are currently stored in open dry storage and will eventually be buried in the trench. This storage is the final step in the Ship-Submarine Recycling Program (SRP), which handles the disposal of decommissioned nuclear vessels. Wed, 01 Jan 2003 12:00:00 GMT Pressurized-water naval nuclear propulsion system. A simplified view of the major primary and secondary components in a naval nuclear propulsion plant. The fuel elements, containing Uranium-235 pellets, are enclosed in the reactor vessel. Pressurized water is used to moderate neutrons in the reactor core and serves as the heat transfer medium. Heated water moves to the steam generator, where the heat transfer takes place between the primary and secondary loops. The main coolant pump then returns the relatively cool water to the reactor core. The pressurizer enables primary loop pressure control through heaters (to increase pressure) and spray (to reduce pressure). The steam produced in the steam generator is used to drive turbines for propulsion and electrical power. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Reactor compartment package characteristics for several submarine and surface plants. This graphic shows reactor compartment package characteristics for some submarine and surface ship reactor plants. After decommmissioning, the reactor plant(s) in a submarine or ship are removed and packaged for storage at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. The compartments are then shipped to and stored at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The primary system components housed inside the reactor compartment include: the reactor pressure vessel, reactor shielding, main coolant pumps, pressurizer system, and steam generators. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Reactor compartment packages at the Hanford Site's trench 94. Defueled reactor compartments from decommissioned submarines are housed in enclosures in trench 94 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The defueled compartments are removed from submarines and packaged at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, then shipped by barge and trailer to Hanford. Sat, 01 Jan 1994 12:00:00 GMT Reactor core being lowered into pressure vessel. The reactor core is lowered into the pressure vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Shippingport plant was "the first large-scale central station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electrical power." Based upon the demonstrated success of Naval Reactors in the development of pressurized water reactor plants, starting with the Mark I/S1W plant, Admiral Hyman Rickover was assigned responsibility for the Shippingport project by the Atomic Energy Commission. Consistent with the practice used for S1W's design and construction, the AEC contracted with Westinghouse Electric for the Shippingport's plant, with Naval Reactors again serving in its oversight role for the design, development, and construction activities at the Shippingport station. Tue, 01 Jan 1957 12:00:00 GMT Reactor vessel closure head. The closure head is lowered to the top of the reactor vessel in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The closure head had 46 penetrations; 32 for the control rod drive mechanisms, along with refueling and instrumentation ports. The closure head was bolted and welded to the lower section of the reaction vessel to create a pressure-tight and leak-tight seal. Mon, 20 Apr 1964 12:00:00 GMT Reactor vessel positioned on its side. The lower portion of the 264 ton reactor vessel, used for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The vessel is positioned on its side in Shippingport's fuel handling building prior to its installation in the plant. The reactor vessel housed the reactor's fuel assembly, control rods, and thermal shields. Pressurized water flows from each of the loops into the four inlet nozzles at the vessel's bottom; heated water flows to each of the loops from the four outlet nozzles at the top. Wed, 10 Oct 1956 12:00:00 GMT S1W propulsion plant - view from the floor. View of the S1W prototype plant, looking aft to forward. The water tank on the right surrounded the reactor compartment. This design enabled Naval Reactors to assess the reflection of radiation from the core and primary system back into the hull. The cylindrical hull contained the engine rooms and a maneuvering room (the control room for the reactor and propulsion systems). The S1W plant achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953. In June, the S1W plant successfully completed a 100 hour continuous run, illustrating that nuclear-powered submarines would revolutionize naval operations. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT S1W prototype plant - port side, stern view of plant. The S1W (Nautilus) prototype plant, with the water brake for the shaft barely visible on the lower right. Under Hyman Rickover's leadership, the S1W (or Mark I) plant was built as both an engineering and a shipboard prototype, with the plant being assembled inside of a cylindrical hull. While this approach had disadvantages (for example, making it difficult to observe equipment operations in the hull's cramped spaces), it significantly reduced the time required to build the follow-up Mark II plant, on board the USS Nautilus. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The S1W prototype, the world's first naval nuclear reactor plant. The S1W plant, prototype for the USS Nautilus. Under the leadership of Hyman Rickover, Naval Reactors followed a concurrent design approach, with the design and construction of the S1W (then named Mark I) plant slightly leading the design and construction of the Nautilus. The S1W plant achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953. Historians Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan noted that the S1W "was the world's first fully-engineered nuclear reactor capable of producing practical amounts of energy on a sustained and reliable basis" (186). The S1W was used to support plant testing and operator training for decades and was decommissioned in 1989. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT S5G prototype during natural circulation reactor testing. The S5G (Narwhal prototype) plant at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S5G prototype and Narwhal plants used natural circulation in the primary loop to reduce plant noise, as an alternative to forced circulation of primary coolant using reactor coolant pumps. In this photo, the prototype plant is being floated in a tank in order to determine the effects of rolling and pitching on the reactor's operation. The S5G reator achieved initial criticality on 12 September 1965. S5G was used as a training and testing prototype by Naval Reactors until the mid-1990s Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Seed fuel assembly being removed from reactor vessel by an extraction crane. A highly-enriched Uranium fuel element is removed from the Shippingport reactor core in 1960. Alvin Radkowsky, the chief physicist for Naval Reactors, "suggested the possibility of using a 'seed' of highly-enriched uranium surrounded by a much larger 'blanket' of natural uranium" (244). This core design approach offered several advantages, including ease of refueling (by replacing the seed elements), and was employed in the Shippingport reactor cores during the plant's operations, including the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was used from 1977 to 1982. Thu, 07 Jan 1960 12:00:00 GMT Shippingport reactor pressure vessel. The reactor pressure vessel for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is unloaded from a rail car in the plant's fuel handling building. According to historians Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan, the Shippingport plant was "the world's first full-scale electrical generating plant using nuclear energy." In part owing to Hyman Rickover's success in building the Mark I (S1W) plant in a joint Atomic Energy Commission-Navy project, the AEC approved a proposal that had Rickover and his organization manage the design and construction of the Shippingport plant. Wed, 10 Oct 1956 12:00:00 GMT Simplified view of S8G naval nuclear propulsion plant. A simplified view of the S8G reactor used to power the Ohio-class Trident ballistic missile submarines. The S8G plant's two turbines provide 60,000 shp (thermal power, shaft horsepower), approaching twice the power produced by the S6G plant used to drive the Los Angeles-class attack submarines. Admiral Hyman Rickover, head of Naval Reactors when the Trident submarine was designed in the early 1970s, supported the 60,000 shp plant, which contributed to the submarine's large size (560 feet long, with a submerged displacement of 18,700 tons). Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Stern view of the USS Enterprise. Stern view of USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which is powered by eight A2W reactors and four propulsion plants/shafts. The Enterprise is shown during an ordnance onload in the Atlantic Ocean. Fri, 31 Oct 2003 12:00:00 GMT Stern view of USS Nautilus. The USS Nautilus underway in Long Island Sound in May 1955, eight months after her commissioning. Sat, 01 Jan 1955 12:00:00 GMT Submarines Seadragon and Skate rendezvous at the North Pole. The submarines USS Skate, the third nuclear-powered submarine, and the USS Seadragon (in the foreground) surfaced at the North Pole on August 2, 1962. The two subs rendezvoused under the ice north of the Soviet Union on July 31, and then conducted joint operations prior to surfacing together at the North Pole. The Skate was powered by the S3W plant, the Seadragon by the S4W, both of which included advances in plant design and arrangement in comparison with the Nautilus' S2W plant. Thu, 02 Aug 1962 12:00:00 GMT Thermal shield being lowered into Shippingport reactor vessel. The thermal shield, which reduces the radiation that reaches the core vessel wall, being lowered into the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's reactor vessel. The shield rested on a support ledge inside the vessel. Sat, 11 Apr 1964 12:00:00 GMT Thermal shields centered over reactor vessel. The thermal shield positioned above the Shippingport reactor vessel. The core's thermal shields consisted of two stainless steel cylinders which rested inside the vessel. The shields reduced the core's radiation and, thus, the heat generated in the reactor's pressure vessel. Sat, 11 Apr 1964 12:00:00 GMT Tracking chart for USS Triton's submerged circumnavigation. A tracking chart that shows the route of the USS Triton, the first submarine to complete a submerged circumnavigation of the Earth (from 24 February to 25 April 1960). One purpose of this mission was to perform psychological stress testing on crew members, in preparation for the extended patrols planned for Polaris ballistic missile submarines. Fri, 01 Jan 1960 12:00:00 GMT USS Abraham Lincoln being replenished at sea. The USS Abraham Lincoln in an underway replenishment with the USNS Guadalupe (center) and the guided-missile cruiser USS Cape St. George (left). The Abraham Lincoln is the fifth Nimitz-class aircraft carrier and was constructed by Newport News Shipbuilding. Mon, 26 Sep 2011 12:00:00 GMT USS California, D2G-powered guided missile cruiser. The USS California was the lead ship in the California-class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers (CGNs). The California's construction was funded in the 1967 shipbuilding program, which also included funding for the Nimitz, the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Historian Francis Duncan notes the importance of mandatory language inserted by the House Armed Services Committee in the funding of these two surface nuclear-powered vessels, following several years of resistance by Department of Defense officials, particularly Secretary Robert McNamara, to the expansion of the surface nuclear fleet. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT USS Cheyenne - last Los Angeles-class nuclear submarine. The USS Cheyenne, the last Los Angeles-class submarine, pulls into port in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii following a deployment. Thu, 24 Apr 2003 12:00:00 GMT USS Connecticut, Seawolf-class submarine. The USS Connecticut (SSN-22) underway in the Indian Ocean. The Connecticut is a Seawolf-class (successor to the Los Angeles class) submarine. She was built by General Dynamics Electric Boat and is powered by an S6W reactor. Tue, 17 Nov 2009 12:00:00 GMT USS Enterprise and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower in 2011. The USS Enterprise (foreground) and the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower off the Virginia coast, as Enterprise returns from a six-month deployment. The Enterprise was deactivated in 2013. The Nimitz-class carrier Eisenhower, powered by two A4W reactors, was commissioned in 1977, 16 years after the Enterprise entered service. Thu, 14 Jul 2011 12:00:00 GMT USS Enterprise at Newport News shipyard. The USS Enterprise at Newport News, Virginia. The Enterprise is powered by eight nuclear reactors. Congress appropriated Enterprise in 1958; its construction cost was approximately 472 million dollars. High construction and operating costs for nuclear (relative to conventional) carriers led to a decade-long delay in the construction of additional nuclear-powered carriers. Sun, 01 Jan 1961 12:00:00 GMT USS Enterprise during flight operations. View of the USS Enterprise (CVN-65), the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. This 2010 photo shows the Enterprise during flight operations in the Atlantic Ocean. The ship, which was powered by eight A2W reactors, was decommissioned in 2013. Thu, 12 Aug 2010 12:00:00 GMT USS Enterprise in 1967. The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise, in 1967. On 5 January 1968, the Enterprise was followed by a detected November-class Soviet submarine at a sustained speed of 31 knots. This incident, which illustrated the growing potential of Soviet nuclear-powered attack submarines, spurred the development and commissioning of a new class of high-speed attack submarines. The submarines in this class, starting with the USS Los Angeles (SSN-688), were powered by the S6G reactor plant. Sun, 01 Jan 1967 12:00:00 GMT USS Enterprise in the Atlantic. The USS Enterprise at sea in 2011. The Enterprise had her final deployment in 2012 and was deactivated in 2013. Mon, 17 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT USS Ethan Allen during her sea trials. The USS Ethan Allen, lead boat in her class, during sea trials in the Atlantic Ocean in late 1960. Historian Thomas Parrish described the four technical components that came together in the ballistic missile submarines built by the United States: "(1) proven nuclear propulsion, (2) reliable solid rocket propellant, (3) inertial shipboard navigation development, and (4) miniaturization of nuclear warheads." The S5W submarine fleet reactor was used to power the Ethan Allen. Fri, 01 Jan 1960 12:00:00 GMT The USS George Bush underway. The USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) at sea in the Atlantic Ocean. The George Bush is the tenth and final Nimitz-class carrier. She is powered by two A4W reactor plants. Mon, 13 Dec 2010 12:00:00 GMT USS George Washington Carver - Benjamin Franklin-class ballistic missile submarine. The USS George Washington Carver (SSBN-656) underway. She was later converted to an attack submarine and redesignated SSN-656. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT USS Hailbut fires a Regulus missile. The USS Halibut, commissioned in 1960, was originally designated as a guided missile submarine (SSGN-587). She was capable of carrying five Regulus I missiles. This subsonic missile had a range of 500 nautical miles and could carry a conventional or nuclear warhead. The Halibut conducted seven missile patrols in the North Pacific carrying Regulus I missiles. The Regulus program was cancelled in 1958 because of the transition to the Polaris ballistic missile program and the commissioning of ballistic missile submarines, beginning with the USS George Washington. In 1965, the Halibut was redesignated SSN-587; she was, as described by authors Norman Polmar and Michael White, converted to a special-mission, intelligence gathering submarine. Thu, 31 Mar 1960 12:00:00 GMT USS Halibut in San Francisco Bay. The USS Halibut is shown steaming in San Francisco Bay. In 1965, the Halibut was converted from a guided missile submarine to a deep-sea intelligence gathering submarine, under the leadership of the Department of Defense's John Craven. The special equipment installed during the conversion included a mainframe computer, towed underwater vehicles, special video and photographic equipment, and a thrust/vector control system for enhanced navigation. The Halibut performed a range of intelligence tasks, most notably reconnaissance and recovery work at the site of a sunken Soviet Golf submarine, K-129. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The USS Hartford underway following Persian Gulf collision. The USS Hartford, Los Angeles-class submarine, following a collision with the USS New Orleans (LPD-18) on 20 March 2009. The vessels were operating in the Strait of Hormuz at the time of the collision. The Hartford's propulsion plant was not damaged by the collision. Fri, 20 Mar 2009 12:00:00 GMT The USS Long Beach at sea. The USS Long Beach (CGN-9) underway. The cruiser was powered by two C1W reactors and, at the time of its 1961 commissioning, was equipped with Talos and Terrier surface-to-air missiles. The advanced weapons systems contributed to the ship's cost overrun, from an estimated 85 million to 330 million dollars (though the costs for the C1W plants also rose, from an estimated 26 million dollars to 41 million dollars). Cost overruns for the Long Beach and Enterprise helped to slow adoption of nuclear power in the surface fleet; nearly a decade would elapse between the Enterprise's commissioning and that of the next nuclear powered carrier, the USS Nimitz. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The USS Long Beach firing its missiles. The USS Long Beach, the first nuclear-powered surface ship, shown firing her missiles in 1961. The cruiser carried Talos and Terrier surface-to-air missiles for defensive support, and Regulus surface-to-surface missiles, capable of strking targets hundreds of miles away. Sun, 01 Jan 1961 12:00:00 GMT The USS Los Angeles, high-speed fast attack submarine. The USS Los Angeles at sea, probably during her sea trials in the summer of 1976. The development of the Los Angeles class was, in large part, a response to advances made by the Soviet Union in submarine technology, particularly in terms of speed. These advances were made clear by a Soviet November class submarine that was tracked following the USS Enterprise on 5 January 1968. By mid-year, the Department of Defense recommended the construction of the USS Los Angeles, as the lead boat in a class of high-speed fast attack submarines. Prior to 1968, Admiral Hyman Rickover, as Director of Naval Reactors, identified General Electric as the reactor's lead designer (for the plant that would eventually become the S6G) and Newport News Shipbuilding as the lead yard for the submarine's construction. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT The USS Los Angeles in 2009. The USS Los Angeles, lead boat in her class, at sea near Apra Harbor, Guam. Eventually, 53 Los Angeles-class submarines were built. These fast-attack subs have a displacement of 6,900 tons submerged and a maximum speed in the range of 32 knots. The USS Los Angeles was decommissioned in 2010. Tue, 20 Oct 2009 12:00:00 GMT USS Mississippi, Virginia-class attack submarine, during Alpha trials. The USS Mississippi during its pre-commissioning trials in April 2012. The Mississippi was completed and delivered to the Navy almost a year ahead of schedule. The submarine was completed in 62 months, compared with the 86 months that it took to complete the lead boat in the class, the USS Virginia. The sub was constructed by two private yards, General Dynamics Electric Boat and Newport News Shipbuilding, working in partnership with one another. Sat, 07 Apr 2012 12:00:00 GMT The USS Nautilus after her successful polar voyage. The USS Nautilus enters New York harbor following her successful voyage under the North Pole. The Nautilus was the first submarine to reach the North Pole, sailing under the pole on 3 August 1958. Mon, 25 Aug 1958 12:00:00 GMT The USS Nautilus underway. The USS Nautilus underway. The world's first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus was powered by an S2W reactor plant. The S2W design was guided by the lessons learned during the construction and early operation of the Mark I (or S1W) prototype at the Idaho National Laboratory. Wed, 01 Jan 1964 12:00:00 GMT USS Nimitz arrives at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. The USS Nimitz, the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, being guided into drydock at Puget Sound Naval Shpyard. The Nimitz was funded in the 1967 shipbuilding program, nearly a decade after construction began on the USS Enterprise. The Nimitz is powered by two A4W reactor plants. This required the development of a reactor plant with a significantly higher power rating than that of the Enterprise's eight A2W plants. Thu, 16 Dec 2010 12:00:00 GMT USS Nimitz in drydock. The USS Nimitz in drydock at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington. Two of the Nimitz's four screws are shown. The Nimitz was the second nuclear-powered carrier to be commissioned by the United States Navy. Due primarily to cost concerns, there was more than a six year gap between the commissioning of the USS Enterprise, powered by eight A2W reactors, and the keel-laying of the Nimitz, which is powered by two A4W reactors. Mon, 20 Dec 2010 12:00:00 GMT The USS Nimitz underway, with nuclear-powered escorts. The USS Nimitz at sea, escorted by the nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers USS South Carolina (top) and USS California. The Nimitz was commissioned on 3 May 1975 and is powered by two A4W reactor plants co-designed by the Knolls and Bettis atomic power laboratories. The nearly fourteen year delay between the commissionings of the Enterprise and Nimitz was, in large part, the product of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's refusal to accept a four reactor plant carrier, and the severe design challenges of powering an aircraft carrier (including propulsion and catapults) using two reactor plants. Thu, 01 Jan 1976 12:00:00 GMT USS Ohio during her conversion to a guided missile submarine. The USS Ohio at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, during her conversion from a ballistic to a guided missile submarine. Following this conversion, the Ohio was redesignated SSGN-726. The redesigned submarine is capable of launching cruise missiles and inserting Navy SEALs into combat areas. Mon, 15 Mar 2004 12:00:00 GMT The USS Ohio, first boat in guided missile submarine class. The USS Ohio returns to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Washington following sea trials. The Ohio was converted from a Trident ballistic missile submarine to the first guided missile submarine. Fri, 23 Dec 2005 12:00:00 GMT USS Ohio, the first Trident submarine. The USS Ohio, lead boat in the Ohio ballistic missile submarine class, during her construction at Electric Boat. The Ohio is powered by an S8G reactor. An S8G prototype plant was built at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory facility in West Milton, New York; the prototype reactor achieved full power operations in December 1979. The Ohio was commissioned on 11 November 1981, about two and a half years behind schedule. Mon, 01 Jan 1979 12:00:00 GMT USS Parche: Attack submarine configured to support intelligence operations. The USS Parche, a Sturgeon-class attack submarine, was converted in the mid-1970s for use in intelligence operations, including support for deep sea divers through a chamber installed on the aft portion of the submarine. The Parche was the first relatively modern submarine employed in operations to tap Soviet undersea communication cables in the Barents Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk; previously, the USS Halibut, a much louder, converted guided missile submarine, supported these operations. The Parche became the most decorated submarine in United States naval history, winning a total of nine Presidential Unit Citations and ten Navy Unit Citations. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT USS Philadelphia, Los Angeles-class attack submarine. The USS Philadelphia at the Naval Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut. The Philadelphia was the first Los Angeles-class attack submarine constructed at General Dynamics Electric Boat. The USS Los Angeles, the lead boat in a new class of high-speed attack submarines, was built by Newport News Shipbuilding. This represented a change in the construction of nuclear submarines - not only was the Los Angeles the lead boat in her class, but it was powered by a newly-designed reactor plant, the S6G. Electric Boat, which constructed the Nautilus, Seawolf, and Skipjack, had the most experience with this type of developmental submarine construction, but the construction of the Los Angeles was awarded to Newport News (which, like Electric Boat, is a private sector shipyard). Fri, 22 Feb 2008 12:00:00 GMT USS Pittsburgh passes the Historic Ship Nautilus. The Los Angeles-class attack submarine USS Pittsburgh passes the USS Nautilus as she returns to Submarine Base New London, following a six month deployment. The Nautilus was decommissioned in 1979; the submarine is berthed at the US Navy Submarine Force Museum in Groton, Connecticut. Fri, 15 Oct 2010 12:00:00 GMT The USS Providence surfaces at the North Pole. Yeoman 1st Class (SS) J. Thompson, USS Providence The USS Providence (SSN-719), a Los Angeles-class submarine, surfaces at the North Pole to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the USS Nautilus' submerged polar transit. Tue, 01 Jul 2008 12:00:00 GMT The USS Scorpion deployed, shortly before being lost at sea. The USS Scorpion, alongside the USS Tallahatchie County (AVB-2) near Naples, Italy in April 1968. This photo was taken approximately six weeks prior to the loss of the Scorpion. The cause of the sub's loss was never definitively determined. One plausible theory: A torpedo exploded inside the submarine (due to an internal battery malfunction), leading to the loss of the sub. Thu, 18 Apr 1968 12:00:00 GMT USS Scorpion, Skipjack-class attack submarine. The USS Scorpion (SSN-589), a Skipjack-class submarine that was powered by an S5W reactor plant. The Scorpion was lost at sea on 5 June 1968; the cause of the submarine's loss was never definitively determined. Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT USS Seawolf at launching - Submarine Intermediate Range (SIR) reactor. The second commissioned nuclear-powered submarine was the USS Seawolf. At the time of her commissioning in March 1957, the Seawolf was powered by an S2G reactor plant, which followed the design and construction of the S1G land-based prototype plant. The plant used sodium as the coolant and beryllium as a moderator and reflector. One important advantage of using sodium as the coolant and heat transfer medium is that higher coolant and secondary steam temperatures are possible, which results in higher thermal efficiency. Additionally, the primary system can be maintained at a reliatively low pressure. Both of these factors enabled primary and secondary components to be lighter (compared with those installed in a pressurized water reactor plant). However, operation of the S1G and S2G plants revealed severe design problems, including primary-to-secondary leakage (and the potential of sodium reacting with water in the secondary system). In 1959, the Seawolf's S2G plant was removed and replaced with an S2Wa ... Thu, 21 Jul 1955 12:00:00 GMT The USS Seawolf underway. The USS Seawolf underway in 1977. During her early years of operations in the late 1950s, the Seawolf was powered by an S2G (sodium-cooled, intermediate range) reactor plant designed by General Electric. Because of difficulties in operating this plant and the demonstrated superiority of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) design, the Seawolf's sodium-cooled plant was removed and replaced with an S2W PWR plant at Electric Boat in 1958-60. Fri, 18 Oct 1957 12:00:00 GMT USS Skate in the arctic region. The USS Skate surfaces in the arctic region. The Skate was powered by the S3W reactor, a successor to the S1W/S2W plants that was built withoutthe construction of a prototype. She traveled under the North Pole in August 1958, just eight days after the Nautilus' historic polar crossing. The Skate was built with a strengthened sail structure and improved fathometer equipment (compared with Nautilus) in order to improve the sub's ability to operate in the polar region. In March 1959, she conducted winter polar operations and surfaced near the North Pole. Thu, 01 Jan 1959 12:00:00 GMT