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21Title:  Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (December 2, 1955 to January 12, 1956) Add
 Summary:  This 1955 report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. In addition to Westinghouse's role in the design and construction of early naval nuclear propulsion plants such as the S1W and S2W (Nautilus prototype and shipboard plants) and the S5W reactor, Westinghouse was the primary contractor for design and construction of the civilian Shippingport Atomic Power Station plant. The report describes Westinghouse's progress (and work with other vendors) in the design and fabrication of reactor core and primary and secondary system components for the Shippingport plant. Section I-A-7 provides information, including photographs, on the installation of the "nuclear portion of the power plant" (11). 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:  circa 1956 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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22Title:  Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (July 15 to August 26, 1954) Add
 Summary:  This report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. Westinghouse was the lead contractor for the design and construction of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's reactor plant, the first in the world to generate civilian power on a large scale. Owing in large part to the success of Hyman Rickover and the Naval Reactors program in directing the design and construction of the Mark I/S1W prototype plant, Naval Reactors served in an oversight role, again working with Westinghouse, for the creation of the Shippingport plant. The report describes progress as of August 1955 on the reactor control, reactor coolant, secondary, and auxiliary systems. It also describes the status of core design and fuel fabrication efforts. Section I-A-1 provides information on plant functional requirements. Section II describes developmental efforts for the Shippingport plant, such as fuel element research and testing. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:  circa 1954 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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23Title:  Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (May 5 to June 16, 1955) Add
 Summary:  This report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. It describes the continued progress on the reactor and power plant at Shippingport, the first nuclear power plant in the world dedicated to the production of power for civilian use. Westinghouse worked under the direction of Naval Reactors in the design and construction of the plant and was the lead vendor for early naval reactor plants such as the S1W/S2W (Nautilus prototype and shipboard plants); the A1W/A2W (Enterprise prototype and shipboard plants); and, the S5W submarine fleet reactor. For that reason, sections of the report such as the description of fuel element failure instrumentation (page 23), are interesting, in that the information is applicable to pressurized water reactors in general. The "PWR Plant Parameters" section near the beginning of the report provides specific temperature, pressure, and power specifications for the Shippingport plant. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:  circa 1955 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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24Title:  Nuclear analysis and performance of the Light Water Breeder Reator (LWBR) core power operations at Shippingport (LWBR Development Program) Add
 Summary:  This report, written by H.C. Hecker, analyzes the performance of the thorium oxide-uranium oxide Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was used in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. During this period, the Shippingport plant generated 1.7 billion net kilowatt hours of energy to the Duquesne Light Energy utility. Heckert notes that the core's design Effective Full Power Hours output of 18,000 was exceeded in the first three years of operation (at 18,298 EFPH). At this point, limits on reactor power and primary plant pressure and temperature were adopted to extend core life. The unique LWBR design, in which reactivity was controlled through the use of movable fuel assemblies instead of hafnium control rods, is noted by the author. In 1982, "the end of reactivity lifetime at a maximum power level of 80% was reached at about 27,100 EFPH with the 12 movable seed assemblies at the maximum withdrawn position" (3). Hecker also describes the core's breeding efficiency: "Fuel depletion calculations which approximated the actual power operations indicate that more fissile fuel was produced in the core than was consumed. The calculated final fissile fuel content is 1.3 percent greater than the initial fissile fuel inventory" (4). Both the core materials and reactivity control systems were "designed to minimize parasitic neutron losses," thus supporting the breeding process (5). The report includes a description and diagrams of the LWBR's core design, which used the seed-blanket arrangement employed in the original Shippingport core. Historian Francis Duncan describes the time commitments that Admiral Hyman Rickover and the Naval Reactors organization made to the development of a civilian nuclear power industry in the United States, through its technical oversight of the design, construction, and operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and later that of the Light Water Breeder Reactor core. The LWBR was installed in the existing Shippingport reactor pressure vessel and demonstrated breeding in a pressurized water reactor plant. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 190-231. 
 Date:   1984 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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25Title:  Naval reactor program and Shippingport project Add
 Summary:  This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing record includes lengthy testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, on a range of issues, including the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first nuclear power plant that supplied commercial power on a large scale. Rep. Melvin Price, chair of the Subcommittee on Research and Development, opens the hearing by praising Rickover and Naval Reactors: "The [Joint Committee] has been very favorably impressed by the excellent contributions the AEC has made to the civilian power program through the naval reactors program" (1). The hearing includes Rickover's update on naval nuclear propulsion. He describes some of the problems with the Seawolf's sodium-cooled reactor plant, and Naval Reactors' reactor development philosophy (with parallel development of thermal energy/pressurized water and intermediate range/sodium-cooled reactor plants). He also describes some of the other challenges faced by the program at its beginning, such as the need to support the development of a Zirconium industry to support naval nuclear propulsion. Regarding training generally and prototype training (which continues today) specifically, Rickover asserts that in the S1W prototype, "we have no better training facility in the Navy than we have there and it is absolutely essential for the future of nuclear power in the Navy that we train the people there, on a real plant, a live one, because we do not want any accidents to happen" [on nuclear-powered vessels in the fleet] (5). During the hearing, Admiral Rickover provides committee members with information on the PWR (Shippingport's pressurized water reactor plant). He notes that Naval Reactors' approach with the Shippingport plant is similar to that used with earlier submarine reactors and propulsion plants: "The Naval Reactors Branch approves the details of the design. We keep in constant touch with what the reactor designers, the machinery designers, the shipbuilders, and the construction contractors are doing" (26). Also, the document includes the testimony of John Simpson, the manager of the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Westinghouse; he provides information on Bettis' support for both submarine plants and the Shippingport plant. In summary, the hearing describes how Naval Reactors supported the design and development of the civilian Shippingport plan and the common threads between Shippingport and the successful submarine reactor program. Clearly, a point of interest for committee members is the cost of design, development, and construction for the Shippingport plant, because of their interest in a successful commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=3163463&sort=title 
 Date:   1957 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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26Title:  Photographs: Written historical and descriptive data Add
 Summary:  This document provides a historical overview of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, which achieved criticality on December 2, 1957. It describes Admiral Hyman Rickover's role in the plant's design and development. In approaching plant design, the report notes Rickover's "conservative design philosophy" and emphasis on reactor safety (7). The station's first reactor design was a pressurized water reactor (PWR), with Rickover, his Naval Reactors organization, and Westinghouse drawing upon the lessons in the design and development of the S1W (Nautilus prototype) plant, also a PWR. The basics of the PWR's seed-blanket core design are described in the document, as well as innovative aspects of the Shippingport plant that were widely adopted in the commercial nuclear power industry, including the use of "reactor containment, a structure which housed in a series of large, interconnected, vapor-tight vessels all parts of the plant containing the reactor and primary system" (3). Also, "the choice of uranium dioxide and zircaloy tubing was crucial in the history of civilian power reactors. The materials proved so successful that they were widely adopted in the civilian power industry" (10). The document also describes the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was first used in operation in 1977: "Shippingport began operating on a thorium-uranium 233 core to demonstrate the feasibility of breeding in a water-cooled reactor; that is, producing more reactor fuel than was consumed" (3). The document concludes with a bibliographic essay that provides information on the Shippingport plant, including its construction, operation, and decommissioning. 
 Source:  http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pnp/habshaer/pa/pa1600/pa1658/data/pa1658data.pdf 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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27Title:  Fuel summary report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Add
 Summary:  This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core installed in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. The core "was developed to prove the concept of a pressurized water breeder reactor" (iv). Its operation was successful, in that the "LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy" (1-1). The core's design was based on a Thorium/U-233 fuel cycle. The U-233 isotope was used because of its high neutron regeneration factor ("the average number of neutrons produced in fission for each neutron absorbed in fissile fuel") relative to U-235 and Pu-239 (3-1). The LWBR design was similar to the two earlier PWR core its use of a seed-blanket design for the reactor fuel. However, one difference between the LWBR and the PWR cores that preceded it in the Shippingport plant was the control mechanism: instead of Hafnium control rods, the breeder plant "was designed with a movable seed, which was raised and lowered to control neutron absorption" (iv). That is, "to start up the reactor, the seed assemblies were raised, bringing the U-233 bearing parts of the fuel closer together"; to shut down the reactor, the fuel assembly was lowered (3-1). Another innovation in the core's design was the use of a Throrium reflector blanket to reduce neutron leakage. Section 2 includes a detailed description of the breeding decay series (in which Th-232 is converted to Uranium) and of the fuel assembly. Section 5 of the report notes one challenge of the transition from the PWR to LWBR design: "the use of the U-233/Th fuel system led to the need for an extensive analysis of available cross section data and other nuclear data for U-233 and Thorium, which had previously been given less attention than U-235 and U-238" (5-1). 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublications/Documents/2664750.pdf 
 Date:   2002 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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28Title:  Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core (LWBR development program) Add
 Summary:  This report provides a retrospective review of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. NR's central role in the creation of the LWBR is noted: "In the early 1960's, work done by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC - now the Department of Energy, DOE) laboratories under the direction of Naval Reactors showed it might be possible to develop a practical, self-sustaining breeder reactor, cooled and moderated with ordinary (light) water and fueled with uranium-233 and thorium" (1-1). The core's design was guided by two principles, "demonstrating typical utility operational capability while simultaneously producing more fissile fuel than is consumed" (2-1). A U-233/Thorium fuel cycle was used in the LWBR, primarily because "the average number of neutrons produced per atom of fissile fuel destroyed by neutron absorption is large enough for U-233 to permit breeding in a thermal reactor, whereas for either U-235 or Pu-238 this quantity is too small" (3-1). Innovations for the LWBR included "design of a practical movable fuel control system to eliminate neutron-absorbing control rods, and design of reliable fuel rod support system with minimum detrimental effect on neutron economy" (2-1). One problem that occurred during LWBR's operations was high radiation levels in the plant work areas. The report notes that "these levels, which existed after plant shutdown, were attributed to deposition of radioactive wear and corrosion products (crud) onto plant surfaces" (6-26). Section 1 of the report includes an in-depth, chronological summary of the LWBR's operations (broken down by quarter) from its reaching 100% reactor power on 2 December 1977 to its final shutdown on 1 October 1982. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1986 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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29Title:  The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor and Light-Water Breeder Reactor Add
 Summary:  This summary and outline, written by J.C. Clayton of the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, describes the history of the cores used at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. It notes that the design and construction of the Shippingport plant, the first commercial power reactor in the United States, was led by the Naval Reactors Branch, reporting to the Atomic Energy Commission. PWR core 1 used a seed-blanket arrangement, with "highly-enriched uranium alloy fuel assemblies" constituting the seed, and "natural uranium dioxide fuel rods" the blanket (3). For PWR core 1, Clayton notes that both regions were essential in maintaining a chain reaction. PWR core 2 employed several advances in reactor technology in order to increase power density and core lifetime. Unlike PWR core 1, the seed region of PWR 2 was capable of a self-sustaining reaction. Both PWR cores 1 and 2 employed Hafnium control rods in the seed region only. Clayton then summarizes the operation of the Shippingport reactor using the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core, its final core prior to decommissioning. He notes that "the Shippingport LWBR demonstrated the feasibility of using the thorium-uranium fuel cycle in a light-water environment" (6). Given the fact that the LWBR was used in the Shippingport reactor vessel and plant, Clayton asserts that the LWBR design "is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in future generations of nuclear reactors" (6). 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1993 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
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30Title:  Tour of "USS Enterprise" and report on Joint AEC Naval Reactor Program Add
 Summary:  This document is based on a hearing that members of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy conducted on board the USS Enterprise in the spring of 1962. The hearing touched on a number of issues, involving both capabilities and costs, which factored into the adoption of nuclear propulsion for aircraft carriers. The first commanding officer of the Enterprise, Vincent P. de Poix, summarized the benefits of nuclear propulsion for carriers, including the ability to rapidly position the ship for air operations, the ability to sail to a trouble spot because of the carrier's support for sustained high-speed propulsion, and the absence of stack gases in the flight deck area, which minimizes aircraft corrosion in comparison with operations on an oil-fired carrier. The qualitative advantages that de Poix summarized, however, were weighed against quantitative advantages emphasized by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, who recommended in 1963 that the next carrier to be built (CV-67) be conventionally-powered. The hearing also provides a nice summary of the naval nuclear propulsion training program, including the role of the Idaho National Laboratory's A1W prototype. Both the Enterprise's Reactor Officer, D.P. Brooks, and the ship's Engineering Officer, R.S. Smith, testify at the hearing and describe training approaches and the organization of the Enterprise's nuclear-trained officers and operators on the ship. The hearing document also includes "A treatise on nuclear propulsion in surface ships." This study was commissioned by Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, in late 1960 and was completed in early 1961. It detailed both the favorable and limiting aspects regarding the adoption of nuclear propulsion in surface ships. A cost factor of 1.5 was included in the study. As summarized by historian Francis Duncan, this finding suggested that "the navy could buy ten nuclear-powered ships or fifteen oil-fired ships of the same type for the same total sum." Admiral Hyman Rickover (Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion) also testified at this hearing and addressed both this cost factor and the capabilities provided by nuclear propulsion. Finally, pages 54 through 56 of the hearing document include Rickover's summary of Shippingport Atomic Power Station reactor attributes and the potential benefits that the work at Shippingport could have for the nation's commercial nuclear power industry. 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=3160343&sort=title 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 111-114. 
 Date:  31 March 1962 
 Subject(s):  A1W | A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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