http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification 720 Naval Reactors History Database (f1-subject=Shippingport Atomic Power Station) http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/search?f1-subject%3DShippingport%20Atomic%20Power%20Station Results for your query: f1-subject=Shippingport Atomic Power Station Sun, 01 Jan 1989 12:00:00 GMT Atoms for peace and war: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. United States Atomic Energy Commission. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/031/031.pdf The authors of this AEC official history, Richard Hewlett and Jack Holl, note the starting point: "in the case of nuclear power...the entire technology was confined within the federal government in 1953" (VII-1). This fact underscores the central leadership role that the AEC was required to take to launch a commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. They note that the success of the S1W (or Mark I) reactor, which began full-power operations in mid-1953, "convinced government officials and members of the Joint Committee [on Atomic Energy] that nuclear power was a reality" (VII-4). Rickover's success with the S1W led the AEC to assign the Naval Reactors organization with the responsibility of overseeing the design and construction of the first commercial power reactor, which became the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Like the S1W and the Nautilus shipyard plant, the Shippingport reactor was a pressurized water reactor. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/031/031.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 1989 12:00:00 GMT Babcock & Wilcox U-shell design steam generator. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/077/077.html One of the two Babcock & Wilcox Company U-shell steam generators being placed in a boiler room at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Each steam generator contained 921 stainless steel tubes, with an outside diameter of 3/4 inch. The U-shaped shells were 38 inches in diameter. It had two hemispherical heads with pipe connections through which primary coolant entered and exited the steam generator. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/077/077.html Wed, 12 Sep 1956 12:00:00 GMT Downcomers and risers piping, Shippingport secondary plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/078/078.html Piping for downcomers and risers in the B loop of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. These pipes connected the loop's Babcock & Wilcox U-shell steam generator with a steam drum, and through the steam drum with the plant's secondary system. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/078/078.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Foster Wheeler straight tube steam generator. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/076/076.html One of the two Foster Wheeler straight tube steam generators being placed in a boiler room in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Each generator contained 2,096 stainless steel tubes, with each tube having an outer diameter of one-half inch. The heads of the steam generator each had 18 inch pipe connections to the secondary system. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/076/076.html Sun, 10 Aug 1958 12:00:00 GMT Fuel summary report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/037/037.pdf This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core installed in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. The core "was developed to prove the concept of a pressurized water breeder reactor" (iv). Its operation was successful, in that the "LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy" (1-1). The core's design was based on a Thorium/U-233 fuel cycle. The U-233 isotope was used because of its high neutron regeneration factor ("the average number of neutrons produced in fission for each neutron absorbed in fissile fuel") relative to U-235 and Pu-239 (3-1). The LWBR design was similar to the two earlier PWR core its use of a seed-blanket design for the reactor fuel. However, one difference between the LWBR and the PWR cores that preceded it in the Shippingport plant was the control mechanism: instead of Hafnium control rods, the breeder plant "was designed with a movable seed, which was raised and lowered to control neutron ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/037/037.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 2002 12:00:00 GMT Instructions to bring Shippingport power breeder to 100 percent reactor power. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/083/083.html An image showing President Jimmy Carter's instructions on 2 December 1987 to operators at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station to "increase light-water breeder reactor power to 100%" (191). Carter issued the order from the White House in a ceremony attended by Secretary of Energy James Schlesinger, Admiral Hyman Rickover, and other Naval Reactors officials; it marked the beginning of routine operations at the Shippingport plant following its conversion to a breeder reactor. The core, which generated more fuel than it consumed, was composed of U-233 and Thorium. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/083/083.html Fri, 02 Dec 1977 12:00:00 GMT Lower section of plant pressurizer, Shippingport Atomic Power Station. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/070/070.html The lower section of the pressurizer at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. In a pressurized water reactor plant, the pressurizer is used to maintain satisfactory operating pressure. Primary pressure in increased through the operation of the removable heating elements visible on the right side of the pressurizer. Pressure is reduced through a spray nozzle at the top of the unit. The pressurizer is connected to the primary coolant system through the surge line (entering the bottom of the pressurizer) and the spray line (entering at the top). During normal power operations, steam is present above the pressurizer's water volume. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/070/070.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main control console at Shippingport (looking north). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/063/063.html The main control console for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. While the Naval Reactors organization, working with Westinghouse, led the design and development of the Shippingport reactor, some aspects of the plant - such as the large size of the control panels and the use of concrete for shielding - were quite different when compared with the submarine reactor plants that had been designed and built under NR's oversight. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/063/063.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main control console at Shippingport (looking south). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/086/086.html A view of the control room at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, with the reactor control panel on the left and the turbine control panel in the center. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/086/086.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main coolant pump, lower section, at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/069/069.html A reactor coolant pump at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The pump circulated water (which served as both coolant and moderator in the pressurized water reactor plant) through the core and the steam generator. One centrifugal pump was installed in each of the plant's four reactor coolant loops. Each pump had two operating speeds, to save electrical power when the plant was operated at below 50% reactor power. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/069/069.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main coolant pump removed from operation. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/075/075.html A reactor coolant pump removed from operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Shippingport reactor used four reactor coolant pumps, one for each primary loop. The single-stage, leak proof centrifugal pump supported the flow of coolant in the primary system; in addition to the coolant flow through the pump, lower temperature water circulated within the pump to remove heat and lubricate the motor bearings. The pump was powered by a 2,300 volt electric motor that supported full-speed and half-speed operations. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/075/075.html Fri, 08 May 1964 12:00:00 GMT Naval reactor program and Shippingport project. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/094/094.pdf This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing record includes lengthy testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, on a range of issues, including the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first nuclear power plant that supplied commercial power on a large scale. Rep. Melvin Price, chair of the Subcommittee on Research and Development, opens the hearing by praising Rickover and Naval Reactors: "The [Joint Committee] has been very favorably impressed by the excellent contributions the AEC has made to the civilian power program through the naval reactors program" (1). The hearing includes Rickover's update on naval nuclear propulsion. He describes some of the problems with the Seawolf's sodium-cooled reactor plant, and Naval Reactors' reactor development philosophy (with parallel development of thermal energy/pressurized water and intermediate range/sodium-cooled reactor plants). He also describes some of the other challenges faced by the program at its beginning, such as the ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/094/094.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 1957 12:00:00 GMT Nuclear analysis and performance of the Light Water Breeder Reator (LWBR) core power operations at Shippingport (LWBR Development Program). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/080/080.pdf This report, written by H.C. Hecker, analyzes the performance of the thorium oxide-uranium oxide Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was used in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. During this period, the Shippingport plant generated 1.7 billion net kilowatt hours of energy to the Duquesne Light Energy utility. Heckert notes that the core's design Effective Full Power Hours output of 18,000 was exceeded in the first three years of operation (at 18,298 EFPH). At this point, limits on reactor power and primary plant pressure and temperature were adopted to extend core life. The unique LWBR design, in which reactivity was controlled through the use of movable fuel assemblies instead of hafnium control rods, is noted by the author. In 1982, "the end of reactivity lifetime at a maximum power level of 80% was reached at about 27,100 EFPH with the 12 movable seed assemblies at the maximum withdrawn position" (3). Hecker also describes the core's breeding efficiency: "Fuel depleti... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/080/080.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 1984 12:00:00 GMT Photographs: Written historical and descriptive data. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. Historic American Engineering Record. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/103/103.pdf This document provides a historical overview of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, which achieved criticality on December 2, 1957. It describes Admiral Hyman Rickover's role in the plant's design and development. In approaching plant design, the report notes Rickover's "conservative design philosophy" and emphasis on reactor safety (7). The station's first reactor design was a pressurized water reactor (PWR), with Rickover, his Naval Reactors organization, and Westinghouse drawing upon the lessons in the design and development of the S1W (Nautilus prototype) plant, also a PWR. The basics of the PWR's seed-blanket core design are described in the document, as well as innovative aspects of the Shippingport plant that were widely adopted in the commercial nuclear power industry, including the use of "reactor containment, a structure which housed in a series of large, interconnected, vapor-tight vessels all parts of the plant containing the reactor and primary system" (3). Also, "the choice of uranium di... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/103/103.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Pressure vessel and piping codes applicable to the PWR reactor plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/051/051.pdf This document provides information on standards compliance for the pressurized water reactor (PWR) installed in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station at the time of publication. The ASME standard, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, sections I and VIII, are referenced in the compliance summary, which maps code compliance to specific areas and components of the reactor plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/051/051.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 1957 12:00:00 GMT Reactor core being lowered into pressure vessel. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/061/061.html The reactor core is lowered into the pressure vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Shippingport plant was "the first large-scale central station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electrical power." Based upon the demonstrated success of Naval Reactors in the development of pressurized water reactor plants, starting with the Mark I/S1W plant, Admiral Hyman Rickover was assigned responsibility for the Shippingport project by the Atomic Energy Commission. Consistent with the practice used for S1W's design and construction, the AEC contracted with Westinghouse Electric for the Shippingport's plant, with Naval Reactors again serving in its oversight role for the design, development, and construction activities at the Shippingport station. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/061/061.html Tue, 01 Jan 1957 12:00:00 GMT Reactor vessel closure head. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/074/074.html The closure head is lowered to the top of the reactor vessel in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The closure head had 46 penetrations; 32 for the control rod drive mechanisms, along with refueling and instrumentation ports. The closure head was bolted and welded to the lower section of the reaction vessel to create a pressure-tight and leak-tight seal. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/074/074.html Mon, 20 Apr 1964 12:00:00 GMT Reactor vessel positioned on its side. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/071/071.html The lower portion of the 264 ton reactor vessel, used for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The vessel is positioned on its side in Shippingport's fuel handling building prior to its installation in the plant. The reactor vessel housed the reactor's fuel assembly, control rods, and thermal shields. Pressurized water flows from each of the loops into the four inlet nozzles at the vessel's bottom; heated water flows to each of the loops from the four outlet nozzles at the top. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/071/071.html Wed, 10 Oct 1956 12:00:00 GMT Seed fuel assembly being removed from reactor vessel by an extraction crane. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/084/084.html A highly-enriched Uranium fuel element is removed from the Shippingport reactor core in 1960. Alvin Radkowsky, the chief physicist for Naval Reactors, "suggested the possibility of using a 'seed' of highly-enriched uranium surrounded by a much larger 'blanket' of natural uranium" (244). This core design approach offered several advantages, including ease of refueling (by replacing the seed elements), and was employed in the Shippingport reactor cores during the plant's operations, including the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was used from 1977 to 1982. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/084/084.html Thu, 07 Jan 1960 12:00:00 GMT Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core (LWBR development program). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/038/038.pdf This report provides a retrospective review of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. NR's central role in the creation of the LWBR is noted: "In the early 1960's, work done by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC - now the Department of Energy, DOE) laboratories under the direction of Naval Reactors showed it might be possible to develop a practical, self-sustaining breeder reactor, cooled and moderated with ordinary (light) water and fueled with uranium-233 and thorium" (1-1). The core's design was guided by two principles, "demonstrating typical utility operational capability while simultaneously producing more fissile fuel than is consumed" (2-1). A U-233/Thorium fuel cycle was used in the LWBR, primarily because "the average number of neutrons produced per atom of fissile fuel destroyed by neutron absorption is large enough for U-233 to permit breeding in a thermal reactor, whereas for either U-235 or Pu-238 this quantity is too small" (3-1). Innovations fo... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/038/038.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1986 12:00:00 GMT The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor and Light-Water Breeder Reactor. Clayton, J.C. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/039/039.pdf This summary and outline, written by J.C. Clayton of the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, describes the history of the cores used at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. It notes that the design and construction of the Shippingport plant, the first commercial power reactor in the United States, was led by the Naval Reactors Branch, reporting to the Atomic Energy Commission. PWR core 1 used a seed-blanket arrangement, with "highly-enriched uranium alloy fuel assemblies" constituting the seed, and "natural uranium dioxide fuel rods" the blanket (3). For PWR core 1, Clayton notes that both regions were essential in maintaining a chain reaction. PWR core 2 employed several advances in reactor technology in order to increase power density and core lifetime. Unlike PWR core 1, the seed region of PWR 2 was capable of a self-sustaining reaction. Both PWR cores 1 and 2 employed Hafnium control rods in the seed region only. Clayton then summarizes the operation of the Shippingport reactor using the Light-Water ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/039/039.pdf Fri, 01 Jan 1993 12:00:00 GMT Shippingport reactor pressure vessel. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/060/060.html The reactor pressure vessel for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is unloaded from a rail car in the plant's fuel handling building. According to historians Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan, the Shippingport plant was "the world's first full-scale electrical generating plant using nuclear energy." In part owing to Hyman Rickover's success in building the Mark I (S1W) plant in a joint Atomic Energy Commission-Navy project, the AEC approved a proposal that had Rickover and his organization manage the design and construction of the Shippingport plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/060/060.html Wed, 10 Oct 1956 12:00:00 GMT Shippingport station decommissioning project: Overview and justification. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/077/077.pdf This 1984 report, written by Frank E. Coffman of the Department of Energy, is a support justification for the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first nuclear power plant that produced significant amounts of energy for civilian use. The report's short history mentions the ongoing relationship between the Naval Reactors organization and the Shippingport plant ("operated by Duquesne Light Company under supervision of the DOE Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors"). The document describes several decommissioning options and the financial benefits of dismantling the plant in a short timeframe. Just as the Shippingport plant served as a model for the design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants, Coffman envisions Shippingport serving as a model for the decommissioning process, the first "full scale power reactor decommissioning demonstration project." The Shippingport plant dismantlement began in 1985. In December 1988, its reactor ve... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/077/077.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 1984 12:00:00 GMT Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (December 2, 1955 to January 12, 1956). Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Atomic Power Division. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/072/072.pdf This 1955 report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. In addition to Westinghouse's role in the design and construction of early naval nuclear propulsion plants such as the S1W and S2W (Nautilus prototype and shipboard plants) and the S5W reactor, Westinghouse was the primary contractor for design and construction of the civilian Shippingport Atomic Power Station plant. The report describes Westinghouse's progress (and work with other vendors) in the design and fabrication of reactor core and primary and secondary system components for the Shippingport plant. Section I-A-7 provides information, including photographs, on the installation of the "nuclear portion of the power plant" (11). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/072/072.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (July 15 to August 26, 1954). Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Atomic Power Division. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/073/073.pdf This report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. Westinghouse was the lead contractor for the design and construction of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's reactor plant, the first in the world to generate civilian power on a large scale. Owing in large part to the success of Hyman Rickover and the Naval Reactors program in directing the design and construction of the Mark I/S1W prototype plant, Naval Reactors served in an oversight role, again working with Westinghouse, for the creation of the Shippingport plant. The report describes progress as of August 1955 on the reactor control, reactor coolant, secondary, and auxiliary systems. It also describes the status of core design and fuel fabrication efforts. Section I-A-1 provides information on plant functional requirements. Section II describes developmental efforts for the Shippingport plant, such as fuel element research... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/073/073.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (May 5 to June 16, 1955). Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Atomic Power Division. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/074/074.pdf This report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. It describes the continued progress on the reactor and power plant at Shippingport, the first nuclear power plant in the world dedicated to the production of power for civilian use. Westinghouse worked under the direction of Naval Reactors in the design and construction of the plant and was the lead vendor for early naval reactor plants such as the S1W/S2W (Nautilus prototype and shipboard plants); the A1W/A2W (Enterprise prototype and shipboard plants); and, the S5W submarine fleet reactor. For that reason, sections of the report such as the description of fuel element failure instrumentation (page 23), are interesting, in that the information is applicable to pressurized water reactors in general. The "PWR Plant Parameters" section near the beginning of the report provides specific temperature, pressure, and power specifications for ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/074/074.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Technical progress report: Pressurized water reactor program (September 9 to October 20, 1955). Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Atomic Power Division. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/071/071.pdf This 1955 report provides a technical update on Westinghouse's work with pressurized water reactor development in the context of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station project. At this time, Westinghouse was the leading designer and builder of naval nuclear propulsion plants, having constructed the Mark I (S1W prototype) and Mark II (Nautilus shipboard) reactors, and designed the S5W submarine fleet reactor. Additionally, Westinghouse was working under the direction of the Naval Reactors organization on the design and construction of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station plant, the first large-scale nuclear power plant that provided power for civilian use. The report describes Westinghouse.s progress (and work with other vendors) in the design and fabrication of reactor core and primary and secondary system components for the Shippingport plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/071/071.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Thermal shield being lowered into Shippingport reactor vessel. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/073/073.html The thermal shield, which reduces the radiation that reaches the core vessel wall, being lowered into the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's reactor vessel. The shield rested on a support ledge inside the vessel. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/073/073.html Sat, 11 Apr 1964 12:00:00 GMT Thermal shields centered over reactor vessel. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/072/072.html The thermal shield positioned above the Shippingport reactor vessel. The core's thermal shields consisted of two stainless steel cylinders which rested inside the vessel. The shields reduced the core's radiation and, thus, the heat generated in the reactor's pressure vessel. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/072/072.html Sat, 11 Apr 1964 12:00:00 GMT Tour of "USS Enterprise" and report on Joint AEC Naval Reactor Program. Joint Commitee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/090/090.pdf This document is based on a hearing that members of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy conducted on board the USS Enterprise in the spring of 1962. The hearing touched on a number of issues, involving both capabilities and costs, which factored into the adoption of nuclear propulsion for aircraft carriers. The first commanding officer of the Enterprise, Vincent P. de Poix, summarized the benefits of nuclear propulsion for carriers, including the ability to rapidly position the ship for air operations, the ability to sail to a trouble spot because of the carrier's support for sustained high-speed propulsion, and the absence of stack gases in the flight deck area, which minimizes aircraft corrosion in comparison with operations on an oil-fired carrier. The qualitative advantages that de Poix summarized, however, were weighed against quantitative advantages emphasized by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, who recommended in 1963 that the next carrier to be built (CV-67) be conventionally-powered. The he... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/090/090.pdf Sat, 31 Mar 1962 12:00:00 GMT