Naval Reactors History Database (nrhdb)
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 Title:  United States Code Add
 Chapter title:  Title 50: Section 2511 
 Summary:  This section of the United States Code describes the administrative structure of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. This structure was defined in Executive Order 12344, which was signed by President Ronald Reagan on February 1, 1982, the day following Admiral Hyman Rickover's forced retirement as head of the program. The executive order maintained the basic structure of the program as it existed during Rickover's 35 year tenure, defining it as "an integrated program carried out by two organizational units, one in the Department of Energy and the other in the Department of the Navy" (488). The responsibilities of the Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion are stated in this section, along with the fact that either a military officer or civilian can be appointed to head the program. Finally, an important break with the Rickover era is also clearly stated in the executive order: an appointment as Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion is term-limited to eight years; this term can be shortened or extended by mutual consent of the Navy and the Department of Energy. 
 Source:  http://www.fdsys.gov/ 
 Date:   2009 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  The United States Navy Nuclear Propulsion Program: Over 151 million miles safely steamed on nuclear power Add
 Summary:  An informal and informative history of joint Department of Energy-Department of the Navy Nuclear Propulsion Program. 
 Source:  http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/04-14-inlinefiles/2014-04-09%202013_Naval_Nuclear_Propulsion_Program.pdf 
 Date:   2013 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  USS Abraham Lincoln being replenished at sea Add
 Summary:  The USS Abraham Lincoln in an underway replenishment with the USNS Guadalupe (center) and the guided-missile cruiser USS Cape St. George (left). The Abraham Lincoln is the fifth Nimitz-class aircraft carrier and was constructed by Newport News Shipbuilding. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=107850 
 Date:  26 September 2011 
 Subject(s):  A4W | USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS California, D2G-powered guided missile cruiser Add
 Summary:  The USS California was the lead ship in the California-class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers (CGNs). The California's construction was funded in the 1967 shipbuilding program, which also included funding for the Nimitz, the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. Historian Francis Duncan notes the importance of mandatory language inserted by the House Armed Services Committee in the funding of these two surface nuclear-powered vessels, following several years of resistance by Department of Defense officials, particularly Secretary Robert McNamara, to the expansion of the surface nuclear fleet. 
 Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USS_California_%28CGN-36%29.JPG 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, page 153. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  D2G | USS California (CGN-36) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Cheyenne - last Los Angeles-class nuclear submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Cheyenne, the last Los Angeles-class submarine, pulls into port in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii following a deployment. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=7025 
 Date:  24 April 2003 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Cheyenne (SSN-773) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Connecticut, Seawolf-class submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Connecticut (SSN-22) underway in the Indian Ocean. The Connecticut is a Seawolf-class (successor to the Los Angeles class) submarine. She was built by General Dynamics Electric Boat and is powered by an S6W reactor. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=78679 
 Date:  17 November 2009 
 Subject(s):  S6W | USS Connecticut (SSN-22) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Enterprise and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower in 2011 Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise (foreground) and the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower off the Virginia coast, as Enterprise returns from a six-month deployment. The Enterprise was deactivated in 2013. The Nimitz-class carrier Eisenhower, powered by two A4W reactors, was commissioned in 1977, 16 years after the Enterprise entered service. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=104147 
 Date:  14 July 2011 
 Subject(s):  A2W | A4W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Enterprise at Newport News shipyard Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise at Newport News, Virginia. The Enterprise is powered by eight nuclear reactors. Congress appropriated Enterprise in 1958; its construction cost was approximately 472 million dollars. High construction and operating costs for nuclear (relative to conventional) carriers led to a decade-long delay in the construction of additional nuclear-powered carriers. 
 Source:  http://www.cvn65.us/us_navy_photos_1.htm 
 Date:   1961 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Enterprise during flight operations Add
 Summary:  View of the USS Enterprise (CVN-65), the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. This 2010 photo shows the Enterprise during flight operations in the Atlantic Ocean. The ship, which was powered by eight A2W reactors, was decommissioned in 2013. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=90286 
 Date:  12 August 2010 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Enterprise in 1967 Add
 Summary:  The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise, in 1967. On 5 January 1968, the Enterprise was followed by a detected November-class Soviet submarine at a sustained speed of 31 knots. This incident, which illustrated the growing potential of Soviet nuclear-powered attack submarines, spurred the development and commissioning of a new class of high-speed attack submarines. The submarines in this class, starting with the USS Los Angeles (SSN-688), were powered by the S6G reactor plant. 
 Source:  http://www.sproston.com/enterprise.htm 
 Reference:  Tyler, Patrick. Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover, and General Dynamics. New York: Harper & Row, 1986. pages 17-52. 
 Date:   1967 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Enterprise in the Atlantic Add
 Summary:  The USS Enterprise at sea in 2011. The Enterprise had her final deployment in 2012 and was deactivated in 2013. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=96471 
 Date:  17 January 2011 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Ethan Allen during her sea trials Add
 Summary:  The USS Ethan Allen, lead boat in her class, during sea trials in the Atlantic Ocean in late 1960. Historian Thomas Parrish described the four technical components that came together in the ballistic missile submarines built by the United States: "(1) proven nuclear propulsion, (2) reliable solid rocket propellant, (3) inertial shipboard navigation development, and (4) miniaturization of nuclear warheads." The S5W submarine fleet reactor was used to power the Ethan Allen. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08608.htm 
 Reference:  Parrish, Thomas. The Submarine: A History. New York: Viking, 2004, pages 479-486. 
 Date:   1960 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Ethan Allen (SSBN-608) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS George Bush underway Add
 Summary:  The USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) at sea in the Atlantic Ocean. The George Bush is the tenth and final Nimitz-class carrier. She is powered by two A4W reactor plants. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=95333 
 Date:  13 December 2010 
 Subject(s):  A4W | USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS George Washington Carver - Benjamin Franklin-class ballistic missile submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS George Washington Carver (SSBN-656) underway. She was later converted to an attack submarine and redesignated SSN-656. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-g/ssbn656.htm 
 Date:  circa 1966 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS George Washington Carver (SSBN-656) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Hailbut fires a Regulus missile Add
 Summary:  The USS Halibut, commissioned in 1960, was originally designated as a guided missile submarine (SSGN-587). She was capable of carrying five Regulus I missiles. This subsonic missile had a range of 500 nautical miles and could carry a conventional or nuclear warhead. The Halibut conducted seven missile patrols in the North Pacific carrying Regulus I missiles. The Regulus program was cancelled in 1958 because of the transition to the Polaris ballistic missile program and the commissioning of ballistic missile submarines, beginning with the USS George Washington. In 1965, the Halibut was redesignated SSN-587; she was, as described by authors Norman Polmar and Michael White, converted to a special-mission, intelligence gathering submarine. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08587b.htm 
 Reference:  Polmar, Norman, and Michael White. Project Azorian: The CIA and the Raising of the K-129. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 2010. 
 Date:  31 March 1960 
 Subject(s):  S3W | USS Halibut (SSGN-587) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Halibut in San Francisco Bay Add
 Summary:  The USS Halibut is shown steaming in San Francisco Bay. In 1965, the Halibut was converted from a guided missile submarine to a deep-sea intelligence gathering submarine, under the leadership of the Department of Defense's John Craven. The special equipment installed during the conversion included a mainframe computer, towed underwater vehicles, special video and photographic equipment, and a thrust/vector control system for enhanced navigation. The Halibut performed a range of intelligence tasks, most notably reconnaissance and recovery work at the site of a sunken Soviet Golf submarine, K-129. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08587b.htm 
 Reference:  Sontag, Sherry, Christopher Drew, and Annette Lawrence Drew. Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. New York: Public Affairs, 1998, pages 46-64. 
 Date:  circa 1970 
 Subject(s):  S3W | USS Halibut (SSN-587) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Hartford underway following Persian Gulf collision Add
 Summary:  The USS Hartford, Los Angeles-class submarine, following a collision with the USS New Orleans (LPD-18) on 20 March 2009. The vessels were operating in the Strait of Hormuz at the time of the collision. The Hartford's propulsion plant was not damaged by the collision. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=69834 
 Date:  20 March 2009 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Hartford (SSN-768) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Long Beach at sea Add
 Summary:  The USS Long Beach (CGN-9) underway. The cruiser was powered by two C1W reactors and, at the time of its 1961 commissioning, was equipped with Talos and Terrier surface-to-air missiles. The advanced weapons systems contributed to the ship's cost overrun, from an estimated 85 million to 330 million dollars (though the costs for the C1W plants also rose, from an estimated 26 million dollars to 41 million dollars). Cost overruns for the Long Beach and Enterprise helped to slow adoption of nuclear power in the surface fleet; nearly a decade would elapse between the Enterprise's commissioning and that of the next nuclear powered carrier, the USS Nimitz. 
 Source:  http://bluejacket.com/usn_ship_image_cg.html 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 99-107. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  C1W | USS Long Beach (CGN-9) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Long Beach firing its missiles Add
 Summary:  The USS Long Beach, the first nuclear-powered surface ship, shown firing her missiles in 1961. The cruiser carried Talos and Terrier surface-to-air missiles for defensive support, and Regulus surface-to-surface missiles, capable of strking targets hundreds of miles away. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/navydata/navy_legacy_hr.asp?id=138 
 Date:   1961 
 Subject(s):  C1W | USS Long Beach (CGN-9) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Los Angeles, high-speed fast attack submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Los Angeles at sea, probably during her sea trials in the summer of 1976. The development of the Los Angeles class was, in large part, a response to advances made by the Soviet Union in submarine technology, particularly in terms of speed. These advances were made clear by a Soviet November class submarine that was tracked following the USS Enterprise on 5 January 1968. By mid-year, the Department of Defense recommended the construction of the USS Los Angeles, as the lead boat in a class of high-speed fast attack submarines. Prior to 1968, Admiral Hyman Rickover, as Director of Naval Reactors, identified General Electric as the reactor's lead designer (for the plant that would eventually become the S6G) and Newport News Shipbuilding as the lead yard for the submarine's construction. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08688.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 27-41. 
 Date:  circa 1976 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Los Angeles (SSN-688) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Los Angeles in 2009 Add
 Summary:  The USS Los Angeles, lead boat in her class, at sea near Apra Harbor, Guam. Eventually, 53 Los Angeles-class submarines were built. These fast-attack subs have a displacement of 6,900 tons submerged and a maximum speed in the range of 32 knots. The USS Los Angeles was decommissioned in 2010. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=77629 
 Reference:  Parrish, Thomas. The Submarine: A History. New York: Viking, 2004, page 495. 
 Date:  20 October 2009 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Los Angeles (SSN-688) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Mississippi, Virginia-class attack submarine, during Alpha trials Add
 Summary:  The USS Mississippi during its pre-commissioning trials in April 2012. The Mississippi was completed and delivered to the Navy almost a year ahead of schedule. The submarine was completed in 62 months, compared with the 86 months that it took to complete the lead boat in the class, the USS Virginia. The sub was constructed by two private yards, General Dynamics Electric Boat and Newport News Shipbuilding, working in partnership with one another. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=125175 
 Date:  07 April 2012 
 Subject(s):  S9G | USS Mississippi (SSN-782) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Nautilus after her successful polar voyage Add
 Summary:  The USS Nautilus enters New York harbor following her successful voyage under the North Pole. The Nautilus was the first submarine to reach the North Pole, sailing under the pole on 3 August 1958. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/Special%20Highlights/Nautilus/nautilus1.htm 
 Reference:  Anderson, William R., and Don Keith. The Ice Diaries: The Untold Story of the Cold War's Most Daring Mission. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2008, pages 280-332. 
 Date:  25 August 1958 
 Subject(s):  S2W | USS Nautilus (SSN-571) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Nautilus underway Add
 Summary:  The USS Nautilus underway. The world's first nuclear-powered submarine, the Nautilus was powered by an S2W reactor plant. The S2W design was guided by the lessons learned during the construction and early operation of the Mark I (or S1W) prototype at the Idaho National Laboratory. 
 Source:  http://www.hnsa.org/ships/nautilus.htm 
 Date:   1964 
 Subject(s):  S2W | USS Nautilus (SSN-571) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Nimitz arrives at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard Add
 Summary:  The USS Nimitz, the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, being guided into drydock at Puget Sound Naval Shpyard. The Nimitz was funded in the 1967 shipbuilding program, nearly a decade after construction began on the USS Enterprise. The Nimitz is powered by two A4W reactor plants. This required the development of a reactor plant with a significantly higher power rating than that of the Enterprise's eight A2W plants. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=95605 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 136-150. 
 Date:  16 December 2010 
 Subject(s):  A4W | USS Nimitz (CVN-68) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Nimitz in drydock Add
 Summary:  The USS Nimitz in drydock at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington. Two of the Nimitz's four screws are shown. The Nimitz was the second nuclear-powered carrier to be commissioned by the United States Navy. Due primarily to cost concerns, there was more than a six year gap between the commissioning of the USS Enterprise, powered by eight A2W reactors, and the keel-laying of the Nimitz, which is powered by two A4W reactors. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=96870 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, page 376. 
 Date:  20 December 2010 
 Subject(s):  A4W | USS Nimitz (CVN-68) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Nimitz underway, with nuclear-powered escorts Add
 Summary:  The USS Nimitz at sea, escorted by the nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers USS South Carolina (top) and USS California. The Nimitz was commissioned on 3 May 1975 and is powered by two A4W reactor plants co-designed by the Knolls and Bettis atomic power laboratories. The nearly fourteen year delay between the commissionings of the Enterprise and Nimitz was, in large part, the product of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's refusal to accept a four reactor plant carrier, and the severe design challenges of powering an aircraft carrier (including propulsion and catapults) using two reactor plants. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/68.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover: The Struggle for Excellence. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 2001, pages 174-187. 
 Date:   1976 
 Subject(s):  A4W | D2G | USS Nimitz (CVN-68) | USS South Carolina (CGN-37) | USS California (CGN-36) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Ohio during her conversion to a guided missile submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Ohio at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, during her conversion from a ballistic to a guided missile submarine. Following this conversion, the Ohio was redesignated SSGN-726. The redesigned submarine is capable of launching cruise missiles and inserting Navy SEALs into combat areas. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=16652 
 Date:  15 March 2004 
 Subject(s):  S8G | USS Ohio (SSGN-726) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Ohio, first boat in guided missile submarine class Add
 Summary:  The USS Ohio returns to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in Bremerton, Washington following sea trials. The Ohio was converted from a Trident ballistic missile submarine to the first guided missile submarine. 
 Source:  http://www.defense.gov/transformation/images/photos/photo_archive/index_2005-12.html 
 Date:  23 December 2005 
 Subject(s):  S8G | USS Ohio (SSGN-726) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Ohio, the first Trident submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Ohio, lead boat in the Ohio ballistic missile submarine class, during her construction at Electric Boat. The Ohio is powered by an S8G reactor. An S8G prototype plant was built at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory facility in West Milton, New York; the prototype reactor achieved full power operations in December 1979. The Ohio was commissioned on 11 November 1981, about two and a half years behind schedule. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08726a.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 48 and 50. 
 Date:   1979 
 Subject(s):  S8G | USS Ohio (SSBN-726) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Parche: Attack submarine configured to support intelligence operations Add
 Summary:  The USS Parche, a Sturgeon-class attack submarine, was converted in the mid-1970s for use in intelligence operations, including support for deep sea divers through a chamber installed on the aft portion of the submarine. The Parche was the first relatively modern submarine employed in operations to tap Soviet undersea communication cables in the Barents Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk; previously, the USS Halibut, a much louder, converted guided missile submarine, supported these operations. The Parche became the most decorated submarine in United States naval history, winning a total of nine Presidential Unit Citations and ten Navy Unit Citations. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08683.htm 
 Reference:  Sontag, Sherry, Christopher Drew, and Annette Lawrence Drew. Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. New York: Public Affairs, 1998, pages 209-230. 
 Date:  circa 1983 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Parche (SSN-683) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Philadelphia, Los Angeles-class attack submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Philadelphia at the Naval Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut. The Philadelphia was the first Los Angeles-class attack submarine constructed at General Dynamics Electric Boat. The USS Los Angeles, the lead boat in a new class of high-speed attack submarines, was built by Newport News Shipbuilding. This represented a change in the construction of nuclear submarines - not only was the Los Angeles the lead boat in her class, but it was powered by a newly-designed reactor plant, the S6G. Electric Boat, which constructed the Nautilus, Seawolf, and Skipjack, had the most experience with this type of developmental submarine construction, but the construction of the Los Angeles was awarded to Newport News (which, like Electric Boat, is a private sector shipyard). 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08690.htm 
 Reference:  Tyler, Patrick. Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover, and General Dynamics. New York: Harper & Row, 1986, pages 93-95. 
 Date:  22 February 2008 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Philadelphia (SSN-690) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Pittsburgh passes the Historic Ship Nautilus Add
 Summary:  The Los Angeles-class attack submarine USS Pittsburgh passes the USS Nautilus as she returns to Submarine Base New London, following a six month deployment. The Nautilus was decommissioned in 1979; the submarine is berthed at the US Navy Submarine Force Museum in Groton, Connecticut. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=92853 
 Reference:  Oldham, Charles. Underway on Nuclear Power: 50th Anniversary of USS Nautilus. Tampa, Fla: Faircount LLC, 2004, pages 72-77. 
 Date:  15 October 2010 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Pittsburgh (SSN-720) | USS Nautilus (SSN-571) | Naval Reactors 
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 Title:  The USS Providence surfaces at the North Pole Add
 Summary:  The USS Providence (SSN-719), a Los Angeles-class submarine, surfaces at the North Pole to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the USS Nautilus' submerged polar transit. 
 Source:  http://www.ctf74.navy.mil/news/2008/07/18.htm 
 Date:  01 July 2008 
 Subject(s):  S6G | USS Providence (SSN-719) | Naval Reactors 
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 Title:  The USS Scorpion deployed, shortly before being lost at sea Add
 Summary:  The USS Scorpion, alongside the USS Tallahatchie County (AVB-2) near Naples, Italy in April 1968. This photo was taken approximately six weeks prior to the loss of the Scorpion. The cause of the sub's loss was never definitively determined. One plausible theory: A torpedo exploded inside the submarine (due to an internal battery malfunction), leading to the loss of the sub. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-s/ssn589-e.htm 
 Reference:  Parrish, Thomas. The Submarine: A History. New York: Viking, 2004, pages 498-500. 
 Date:  18 April 1968 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Scorpion (SSN-589) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Scorpion, Skipjack-class attack submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Scorpion (SSN-589), a Skipjack-class submarine that was powered by an S5W reactor plant. The Scorpion was lost at sea on 5 June 1968; the cause of the submarine's loss was never definitively determined. 
 Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Uss_scorpion_SSN589.jpg 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Scorpion (SSN-589) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Seawolf at launching - Submarine Intermediate Range (SIR) reactor Add
 Summary:  The second commissioned nuclear-powered submarine was the USS Seawolf. At the time of her commissioning in March 1957, the Seawolf was powered by an S2G reactor plant, which followed the design and construction of the S1G land-based prototype plant. The plant used sodium as the coolant and beryllium as a moderator and reflector. One important advantage of using sodium as the coolant and heat transfer medium is that higher coolant and secondary steam temperatures are possible, which results in higher thermal efficiency. Additionally, the primary system can be maintained at a reliatively low pressure. Both of these factors enabled primary and secondary components to be lighter (compared with those installed in a pressurized water reactor plant). However, operation of the S1G and S2G plants revealed severe design problems, including primary-to-secondary leakage (and the potential of sodium reacting with water in the secondary system). In 1959, the Seawolf's S2G plant was removed and replaced with an S2Wa pressurized water reactor plant. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08575a.htm 
 Reference:  Ragheb, Madgi. Nuclear Marine Propulsion. 20 July 2011 [http://tinyurl.com/3fm3azu]. 
 Date:  21 July 1955 
 Subject(s):  S2G | USS Seawolf (SSN-575) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  The USS Seawolf sodium-cooled reactor Add
 Summary:  The text of a May 2012 speech by Eric Loewen of the American Nuclear Society, which focused on the sodium cooled intermediate range reactors designed and developed by General Electric for naval propulsion. While there are some errors in the text, Loewen describes sodium cooled reactor technology and components such as electromagnetic pumps. He provides some unique insights into the construction of the S1G and S2G naval plants. Similar to the Manhattan Engineer District project, the development of naval nuclear propulsion followed a parallel path with the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), developed by Westinghouse and the sodium cooled, Submarine Intermediate Rector (SIR), developed by General Electric. Loewen notes that the SIR offered two important advantages: "the sodium cooled knowledge base was further advanced than the PWR, and the sodium cooled reactor did have higher steam cycle efficiency" (3). He also describes some of the weaknesses of the SIR reactor, including the use of 347 stainless steel (347SS) in the superheaters and the "adverse affects of sodium" upon 347SS. Bypassing the superheaters led to higher-than-expected uranium depletion as the plant operated with lower steam temperatures and pressures (5). In reviewing the Soviet navy's use of liquid metal cooled plants, Loewen notes another weakness of the SIR: external heaters must keep the primary loop warm during reactor shutdown periods in order to keep the coolant from solidifying. Errors include the power rating of the Shippingport civilian power plant (initial rating, 60 MW) and the moderator for the S1G and S2G plants (which were beryllium, not carbon). 
 Source:  http://www.new.ans.org/about/officers/docs/seawolf_sfr_sea_story_051712.pdf 
 Date:  17 May 2012 
 Subject(s):  S1G | S2G | USS Seawolf (SSN-575) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  The USS Seawolf underway Add
 Summary:  The USS Seawolf underway in 1977. During her early years of operations in the late 1950s, the Seawolf was powered by an S2G (sodium-cooled, intermediate range) reactor plant designed by General Electric. Because of difficulties in operating this plant and the demonstrated superiority of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) design, the Seawolf's sodium-cooled plant was removed and replaced with an S2W PWR plant at Electric Boat in 1958-60. 
 Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USS_Seawolf_%28SSN-575%29.jpg 
 Reference:  Polmar, Norman. Atomic Submarines. London: Van Nostrand, 1963, pages 106-109. 
 Date:  18 October 1957 
 Subject(s):  S2G | USS Seawolf (SSN-575) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Skate in the arctic region Add
 Summary:  The USS Skate surfaces in the arctic region. The Skate was powered by the S3W reactor, a successor to the S1W/S2W plants that was built withoutthe construction of a prototype. She traveled under the North Pole in August 1958, just eight days after the Nautilus' historic polar crossing. The Skate was built with a strengthened sail structure and improved fathometer equipment (compared with Nautilus) in order to improve the sub's ability to operate in the polar region. In March 1959, she conducted winter polar operations and surfaced near the North Pole. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08578.htm 
 Reference:  Rockwell, Theodore. The Rickover Effect: How One Man Made a Difference. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse, 2002, pages 251-255. 
 Date:   1959 
 Subject(s):  S3W | USS Skate (SSN-578) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Skipjack, first submarine driven by S5W plant Add
 Summary:  The USS Skipjack, the first boat on which the S5W reactor was installed. The S5W core was designed by Westinghouse's Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Unlike the S2W plant installed in the Nautilus, the S5W was designed and built without the benefit of a land-based prototype. The most significant improvements in the S5W design, relative to earlier Bettis-designed reactors, involved "the reactor core, including the fuel assemblies and the control rods" (282). These components could be tested at the Bettis laboratory without a full-scale prototype being constructed. The S5W, the submarine fleet reactor, was used to power nearly 100 fast attack and ballistic missile boats. 
 Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Skipjack_%28SSN-585%29 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 278-282. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Skipjack (SSN-585) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Sturgeon, lead submarine in the Sturgeon class Add
 Summary:  A topside bow view of the USS Sturgeon, lead boat in the Sturgeon class of attack submarines. Although thirty seven Sturgeon-class submarines were eventually built (with the Sturgeon commissioned in 1967), the Navy quickly shifted its focus to the development of a high-speed attack submarine (in order to match the observed speed of Soviet attack submarines) with the Los Angeles class. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08637.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 27-33. 
 Date:  17 January 1967 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Sturgeon (SSN-637) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Thresher, bow view Add
 Summary:  A bow view of the USS Thresher (showing the sail and diving planes), taken in July 1961. The Thresher was the lead boat in her class, designed to support operations at a depth greater than that possible with submarines of the Skipjack class. The Thresher was built at the Portsmouth Naval Yard and was powered by an S5W reactor plant. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-t/ssn593.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 52-64. 
 Date:  24 July 1961 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Thresher (SSN-593) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Thresher, lead boat in the Thresher class Add
 Summary:  The USS Thresher underway. The Thresher, the lead submarine in her class, was designed and built by the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. This was a change from earlier practice; lead boats for earlier nuclear-powered sub classes were constructed by Electric Boat. The Thresher was lost at sea on 10 April 1963 with 129 crew members and civilian specialists on board. The precise reason for the submarine's loss was never determined. A court of inquiry found the most likely cause was a seawater leak in the engine room that started a chain of events that led to a loss of propulsion power. 
 Source:  http://www.steelnavy.com/BWNssn593.htm 
 Reference:  Rockwell, Theodore. The Rickover Effect: How One Man Made a Difference. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse, 2002, pages 315-320. 
 Date:  circa 1961 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Thresher (SSN-593) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Thresher underway Add
 Summary:  Aerial view of the USS Thresher underway. The Thresher was constructed at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. Her construction was plagued by difficulties, in part due to the use of HY-80 hull welds (needed to enable deeper submerged operations) and Portsmouth's lack of experience and proficiency, relative to Electric Boat, in building nuclear subs. The Thresher was lost at sea on 10 April 1963. A Navy court of inquiry found that engine room flooding, perhaps caused by the failure of a silver-brazed joint, resulted in a loss of electrical power and (following a reactor scram), a loss of proplusion power. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-t/ssn593.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 52-98. 
 Date:  30 April 1961 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Thresher (SSN-593) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Triton: Twin reactor submarine Add
 Summary:  The USS Triton during its sea trials in 1959. The Triton was driven by two S4G reactors and twin screws; the S4G's design was tested through the operation of the land-based S3G prototype. The S3G and S4G plants were the first pressurized water reactors designed and constructed by General Electric following the company's development of the sodium-cooled S1G and S2G reactors. 
 Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USS_Triton_SSRN586_0858601.jpg 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 272-276. 
 Date:  27 September 1959 
 Subject(s):  S4G | USS Triton (SSRN-586) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Truxtun at sea Add
 Summary:  The USS Truxtun (CGN-35), the fourth surface nuclear vessel commissioned by the Navy, and the only ship of the Truxtun class. The Truxtun was the second guided missile frigate, after the Bainbridge, and was powered by two D2G reactors. 
 Source:  http://www.navysite.de/cg/cgn35.htm 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, page 370. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  D2G | USS Truxtun (CGN-35) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  The USS Truxtun, following its decommissioning Add
 Summary:  The Truxtun (CGN-35) in ship recycling at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. The Truxtun was the second nuclear frigate, following the USS Bainbridge. Like the Bainbridge, the Truxtun was powered by two D2G reactors. 
 Source:  http://www.navysite.de/cg/cgn35class.htm 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 117-120. 
 Date:  circa 1999 
 Subject(s):  D2G | USS Truxtun (CGN-35) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Virginia arriving at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Add
 Summary:  The USS Virginia arrives at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for a selective restrictive availability period. The Virginia is the lead boat in its class, powered by an S9G reactor. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=91294 
 Date:  07 September 2010 
 Subject(s):  S9G | USS Virginia (SSN-774) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  USS Virginia (lead boat in Virginia class) underway Add
 Summary:  The USS Virginia (SSN-774) departs Groton in early 2009 for an underway period that included an Operational Reactor Safeguard Examination (ORSE). This exam is designed to test the engineering department's ability to operate the reactor in a safe manner. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=74613 
 Date:  09 January 2009 
 Subject(s):  S9G | USS Virginia (SSN-774) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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