Naval Reactors History Database (nrhdb)
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 Title:  S1W propulsion plant - view from the floor Add
 Summary:  View of the S1W prototype plant, looking aft to forward. The water tank on the right surrounded the reactor compartment. This design enabled Naval Reactors to assess the reflection of radiation from the core and primary system back into the hull. The cylindrical hull contained the engine rooms and a maneuvering room (the control room for the reactor and propulsion systems). The S1W plant achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953. In June, the S1W plant successfully completed a 100 hour continuous run, illustrating that nuclear-powered submarines would revolutionize naval operations. 
 Source:  http://www.subguru.com/nautilus571.htm 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 182-186. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S1W | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  S1W prototype plant - port side, stern view of plant Add
 Summary:  The S1W (Nautilus) prototype plant, with the water brake for the shaft barely visible on the lower right. Under Hyman Rickover's leadership, the S1W (or Mark I) plant was built as both an engineering and a shipboard prototype, with the plant being assembled inside of a cylindrical hull. While this approach had disadvantages (for example, making it difficult to observe equipment operations in the hull's cramped spaces), it significantly reduced the time required to build the follow-up Mark II plant, on board the USS Nautilus. 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/proving-the-principle/chapter_06.pdf 
 Reference:  Polmar, Norman, and Thomas B. Allen. Rickover: Controversy and Genius, a Biography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984, pages 149-153. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S1W | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  PNG 
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 Title:  The S1W prototype, the world's first naval nuclear reactor plant Add
 Summary:  The S1W plant, prototype for the USS Nautilus. Under the leadership of Hyman Rickover, Naval Reactors followed a concurrent design approach, with the design and construction of the S1W (then named Mark I) plant slightly leading the design and construction of the Nautilus. The S1W plant achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953. Historians Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan noted that the S1W "was the world's first fully-engineered nuclear reactor capable of producing practical amounts of energy on a sustained and reliable basis" (186). The S1W was used to support plant testing and operator training for decades and was decommissioned in 1989. 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/proving-the-principle/chapter_06.pdf 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 164-165, 182-186. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S1W | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  PNG 
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 Title:  S5G prototype during natural circulation reactor testing Add
 Summary:  The S5G (Narwhal prototype) plant at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S5G prototype and Narwhal plants used natural circulation in the primary loop to reduce plant noise, as an alternative to forced circulation of primary coolant using reactor coolant pumps. In this photo, the prototype plant is being floated in a tank in order to determine the effects of rolling and pitching on the reactor's operation. The S5G reator achieved initial criticality on 12 September 1965. S5G was used as a training and testing prototype by Naval Reactors until the mid-1990s 
 Source:  http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=45325547583 
 Reference:  Duncan, Francis. Rickover and the Nuclear Navy: The Discipline of Technology. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 1990, pages 23-27. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S5G | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Safeguarding of naval nuclear propulsion information: Unclassified portion Add
 Summary:  This document describes the handling requirements for NNPI, naval nuclear propulsion information, in light of current information technologies. It includes directions on determining classification and on marking classified documents. The instruction document includes a letter signed by Kirkland Donald, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, with implementation information. 
 Source:  www.fas.org/irp/doddir/navy/opnavinst/n9210_3.pdf 
 Date:  07 June 2010 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Seed fuel assembly being removed from reactor vessel by an extraction crane Add
 Summary:  A highly-enriched Uranium fuel element is removed from the Shippingport reactor core in 1960. Alvin Radkowsky, the chief physicist for Naval Reactors, "suggested the possibility of using a 'seed' of highly-enriched uranium surrounded by a much larger 'blanket' of natural uranium" (244). This core design approach offered several advantages, including ease of refueling (by replacing the seed elements), and was employed in the Shippingport reactor cores during the plant's operations, including the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core that was used from 1977 to 1982. 
 Source:  http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/PA1658/ 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 242-246. 
 Date:  07 January 1960 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core (LWBR development program) Add
 Summary:  This report provides a retrospective review of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. NR's central role in the creation of the LWBR is noted: "In the early 1960's, work done by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC - now the Department of Energy, DOE) laboratories under the direction of Naval Reactors showed it might be possible to develop a practical, self-sustaining breeder reactor, cooled and moderated with ordinary (light) water and fueled with uranium-233 and thorium" (1-1). The core's design was guided by two principles, "demonstrating typical utility operational capability while simultaneously producing more fissile fuel than is consumed" (2-1). A U-233/Thorium fuel cycle was used in the LWBR, primarily because "the average number of neutrons produced per atom of fissile fuel destroyed by neutron absorption is large enough for U-233 to permit breeding in a thermal reactor, whereas for either U-235 or Pu-238 this quantity is too small" (3-1). Innovations for the LWBR included "design of a practical movable fuel control system to eliminate neutron-absorbing control rods, and design of reliable fuel rod support system with minimum detrimental effect on neutron economy" (2-1). One problem that occurred during LWBR's operations was high radiation levels in the plant work areas. The report notes that "these levels, which existed after plant shutdown, were attributed to deposition of radioactive wear and corrosion products (crud) onto plant surfaces" (6-26). Section 1 of the report includes an in-depth, chronological summary of the LWBR's operations (broken down by quarter) from its reaching 100% reactor power on 2 December 1977 to its final shutdown on 1 October 1982. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1986 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor and Light-Water Breeder Reactor Add
 Summary:  This summary and outline, written by J.C. Clayton of the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, describes the history of the cores used at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. It notes that the design and construction of the Shippingport plant, the first commercial power reactor in the United States, was led by the Naval Reactors Branch, reporting to the Atomic Energy Commission. PWR core 1 used a seed-blanket arrangement, with "highly-enriched uranium alloy fuel assemblies" constituting the seed, and "natural uranium dioxide fuel rods" the blanket (3). For PWR core 1, Clayton notes that both regions were essential in maintaining a chain reaction. PWR core 2 employed several advances in reactor technology in order to increase power density and core lifetime. Unlike PWR core 1, the seed region of PWR 2 was capable of a self-sustaining reaction. Both PWR cores 1 and 2 employed Hafnium control rods in the seed region only. Clayton then summarizes the operation of the Shippingport reactor using the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core, its final core prior to decommissioning. He notes that "the Shippingport LWBR demonstrated the feasibility of using the thorium-uranium fuel cycle in a light-water environment" (6). Given the fact that the LWBR was used in the Shippingport reactor vessel and plant, Clayton asserts that the LWBR design "is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in future generations of nuclear reactors" (6). 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1993 
 Subject(s):  Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) | Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Shippingport reactor pressure vessel Add
 Summary:  The reactor pressure vessel for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is unloaded from a rail car in the plant's fuel handling building. According to historians Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan, the Shippingport plant was "the world's first full-scale electrical generating plant using nuclear energy." In part owing to Hyman Rickover's success in building the Mark I (S1W) plant in a joint Atomic Energy Commission-Navy project, the AEC approved a proposal that had Rickover and his organization manage the design and construction of the Shippingport plant. 
 Source:  http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/PA1658/ 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 225-257. 
 Date:  10 October 1956 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Shippingport station decommissioning project: Overview and justification Add
 Summary:  This 1984 report, written by Frank E. Coffman of the Department of Energy, is a support justification for the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first nuclear power plant that produced significant amounts of energy for civilian use. The report's short history mentions the ongoing relationship between the Naval Reactors organization and the Shippingport plant ("operated by Duquesne Light Company under supervision of the DOE Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors"). The document describes several decommissioning options and the financial benefits of dismantling the plant in a short timeframe. Just as the Shippingport plant served as a model for the design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants, Coffman envisions Shippingport serving as a model for the decommissioning process, the first "full scale power reactor decommissioning demonstration project." The Shippingport plant dismantlement began in 1985. In December 1988, its reactor vessel was removed from the containment building and shipped to the Hanford Site for burial. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1984 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Shipyards in the United States that perform naval nuclear propulsion work, 2012 Add
 Summary:  Information on the nuclear-qualified shipyards that support the construction and maintenance of naval nuclear propulsion for the United States Navy. Links to Google Maps are provided for the six shipyard facilities. 
 Source:  http://nnsa.energy.gov/ourmission/poweringnavy 
 Date:   2012 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  HTML 
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 Title:  Simplified view of S8G naval nuclear propulsion plant Add
 Summary:  A simplified view of the S8G reactor used to power the Ohio-class Trident ballistic missile submarines. The S8G plant's two turbines provide 60,000 shp (thermal power, shaft horsepower), approaching twice the power produced by the S6G plant used to drive the Los Angeles-class attack submarines. Admiral Hyman Rickover, head of Naval Reactors when the Trident submarine was designed in the early 1970s, supported the 60,000 shp plant, which contributed to the submarine's large size (560 feet long, with a submerged displacement of 18,700 tons). 
 Source:  http://www.robse.dk/pages/SSBN/OhioFami.asp 
 Reference:  Polmar, Norman, and Thomas B. Allen. Rickover: Controversy and Genius, a Biography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984, pages 564-578. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S8G | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  GIF 
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 Title:  Statement of Admiral F.L. "Skip" Bowman, US Navy, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, before the House Committee on Science Add
 Summary:  A written statement submitted by Admiral Skip Bowman (Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion) to the House of Representatives following the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia in 2003. Bowman testified on the program's "culture of safety" and the fact that safety is "mainstreamed" throughout the Naval Reactors program, from its research laboratories to contractor relationships, and to its operators in the fleet. He described the organizational structure of NR and its relatively small size (380 civilian and military employees in 2003), given the scope and complexity of the projects that it manages. Admiral Bowman also describes the importance of training in the program and his direct oversight role in this area. Bowman's statement followed work between NASA and Naval Reactors, a benchmarking exchange effort that identified practices in the Naval Reactors and submarine programs that would be potentially applicable to human space flight. 
 Source:  http://history.nasa.gov/columbia/house_reps.html 
 Date:  29 October 2003 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Statement of Admiral Frank L. Bowman, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, before the Senate Armed Services Committee, National Nuclear Security Administration budget Add
 Summary:  Admiral Frank Bowman's written statement in support of the Naval Reactors request in the fiscal year 2001 budget. The document provides a good description of the role of the Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion and an overview of the program's history and culture. Bowman's emphasis on "the longevity of its senior managers and staff" is consistent with Admiral Hyman Rickover's management of the program (as its first director). In terms of the FY 2001 request, Bowman identifies reactor development for the Virginia-class fast-attack submarines and the successor to the Nimitz-class carriers as priorities. He also describes NR's efforts since 1993 in deactivating land-based prototype plants. 
 Source:  http://armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2000/000225fb.pdf 
 Date:  25 February 2000 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Statement of Admiral Frank L. Bowman, U.S. Navy, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program to the Senate Armed Services Committee ,Strategic Subcommittee Add
 Summary:  In this statement, Admiral Frank Bowman provides information to the Senate Armed Services Committee on Naval Reactors' FY 2003 budget request. Bowman describes the composition and strategic capabilities of the Navy's nuclear-powered attack submarines, ballistic missile submarines, and aircraft carriers. He notes that the Virginia-class attack submarines, which are powered by the S9G reactor, have the first cores that are designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ship. Bowman describes the steps being taken to extend the life of nuclear-powered vessels, such as refueling the Los Angeles-class attack submarines. Consistent with the joint Navy-Department of Energy scope of NR activities, Bowman also describes the DOE's budget request, including support for reactor development work that extends core life. He lists Virginia-class (S9G reactor) and CVNX (A1B reactor) development, spent fuel processing, and prototype deactivation as significant DOE funding priorities. 
 Source:  http://armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2002/April/Bowman.pdf 
 Date:  10 April 2002 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Statement of Admiral H.G. Rickover, USN before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives Add
 Summary:  In the aftermath of the March 1979 reactor accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, Admiral Hyman Rickover, director of the Navy's nuclear propulsion program, was invited to submit information on the Naval Reactors program to a U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee investigating the accident. At the time, Rickover's program was responsible for the operation of 153 reactors, including shipboard and prototype plants and the reactor at the commercial Shippingport Atomic Power Station. His statement describes, in depth, the values and training process in the Naval Reactors program. Rickover notes that "reactor safety requires adherence to a total concept wherein all elements are recognized as important and each is constantly reinforced" (7). For example, plant design and operator training are integrally related to one another, and this is reflected in the program's approach to both areas. On pages 14-16, Rickover describes his philosophy of conservatism in terms of plant design. Most notably, U.S. naval nuclear propulsion plants are designed to be inherently stable; unlike the Three Mile Island plant, they rely on operator instead of automatic reactor control; and, actual nuclear propulsion plants, not simulators, are used for the training of plant operators. Most of the statement focuses on the operator training process in the program. Rickover describes two primary objectives for the training program. Trainees are taught: "1) the principles of science and engineering which are fundamental to the design, construction, and operation of naval nuclear propulsion plants; and (2) the details and practical knowledge needed to operate and operations these plants" (35-36). The two primary components of the training are Nuclear Power School, which provides the theoretical foundation for officers and enlisted trainees, and prototype training; the operation of both schools is described in great depth, clearly indicating the importance that Rickover placed upon training in ensuring the safe operation of naval nuclear propulsion plants. In the hands-on prototype training for officers and enlisted trainees, Rickover emphasizes the different phases of training (classroom and in-hull) and the variety of assessment methods used (including oral checkouts on plant systems, watchstander observation, written examinations, and oral boards). There are some legibility problems in this digital document. 
 Source:  http://www.taproot.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/RickeoverCongressionalTestimony.pdf 
 Date:  24 May 1979 
 Subject(s):  Reactor safety | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Statement of Admiral Kirkland Donald, Director, Naval Reactors, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy on the fiscal year 2013 President's budget request before the Senate Armed Service Committee, Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Add
 Summary:  Admiral Kirkland Donald summarizes the Naval Reactors budget request for FY 2013. Adm. Donald describes important program accomplishments for FY 2012. This includes progress in reactor design for the replacement class for Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines, "including sufficient completion of design and manufacturing development of core materials to support the 2012 core materials decision" (1). He notes that full funding for this design work is essential: "vital to minimizing risk and cost during component procurement and ship construction" (3). In describing the FY 2013 request, Donald emphasizes the program's responsibility "for complete lifecycle support for every nuclear-powered warship, from construction through inactivation" (2). This is epitomized by the major projects described by Adm. Donald, including "the refueling overhaul for the S8G land-based prototype reactor, the design of the Ohio replacement reactor plant, and recapitalization of [the] naval spent nuclear fuel infrastructure" (2). He also describes the benefits of the life-of-the-ship core that will be installed in the successor to the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines, one being the ability to reduce the number of submarines procured by the federal government. Finally, Donald notes the importance of the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (which has been in operation for more than 50 years). Due to fiscal limits imposed by the Budget Control Act, Naval Reactors will be submitting a revised plan for the recapitalization of infrastructure at the facility. 
 Source:  http://armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2012/03%20March/Donald%2003-14-12.pdf 
 Date:  14 March 2012 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Statement of Thomas P. D.Agostino, Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy on the Fiscal Year 2011 President.s budget request before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Add
 Summary:  This document describes the Naval Reactors appropriation request for FY 2011. It describes the current composition of the nuclear navy and three future priorities: replacement reactor plants for the S8G plants on board Ohio-class submarines; refueling of the Ohio prototype plant at West Milton, New York; and, funding for the Expended Core Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. 
 Source:  http://www.nti.org/e_research/source_docs/us/congress/senate/14.pdf 
 Date:  14 April 2010 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Statement of Thomas P. D.Agostino, Under Secretary for Nuclear Security and Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S. Department of Energy on the fiscal year 2012 nuclear security posture and the President's budget request before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, Senate Armed Services Committee Add
 Summary:  The written statement of Thomas D'Agostino, Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration, on the administration's budget request for FY 2012. This statement includes supporting information for the Naval Reactors budget request, which was 1.2 billion dollars, an increase of nearly eight percent from the previous fiscal year. D'Agostino identifies strategic development areas as support for the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine replacement, noting that 'providing the Ohio class replacement a life-of-the-ship reactor core will require substantial advances in manufacturing technology to provide new cladding and a new fuel system" (4). A second strategic area is the "Spent Fuel Handling Recapitalization Project (SFHP), which will replace the over 50-year old Expended Core Facility (ECF) as the location for naval spent nuclear fuel receipt, inspection, dissection, packaging, and secure dry storage" (4). Finally, the budget tables show how the request for Naval Reactors fits within the larger NNSA budget request. 
 Source:  http://armed-services.senate.gov/statemnt/2011/03%20March/DAgostino%2003-30-11.pdf 
 Date:  30 March 2012 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
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 Title:  Stern view of the USS Enterprise Add
 Summary:  Stern view of USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which is powered by eight A2W reactors and four propulsion plants/shafts. The Enterprise is shown during an ordnance onload in the Atlantic Ocean. 
 Source:  http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=11480 
 Date:  31 October 2003 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Stern view of USS Nautilus Add
 Summary:  The USS Nautilus underway in Long Island Sound in May 1955, eight months after her commissioning. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/Special%20Highlights/Nautilus/nautilus2.htm 
 Date:   1955 
 Subject(s):  S2W | USS Nautilus (SSN-571) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
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 Title:  Submarines Seadragon and Skate rendezvous at the North Pole Add
 Summary:  The submarines USS Skate, the third nuclear-powered submarine, and the USS Seadragon (in the foreground) surfaced at the North Pole on August 2, 1962. The two subs rendezvoused under the ice north of the Soviet Union on July 31, and then conducted joint operations prior to surfacing together at the North Pole. The Skate was powered by the S3W plant, the Seadragon by the S4W, both of which included advances in plant design and arrangement in comparison with the Nautilus' S2W plant. 
 Source:  http://www.navsource.org/archives/08/08584.htm 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 278-281. 
 Date:  02 August 1962 
 Subject(s):  S4W | S3W | USS Seadragon (SSN-584) | USS Skate (SSN-578) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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