Naval Reactors History Database (nrhdb)
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 Title:  Reactor compartment package characteristics for several submarine and surface plants Add
 Summary:  This graphic shows reactor compartment package characteristics for some submarine and surface ship reactor plants. After decommmissioning, the reactor plant(s) in a submarine or ship are removed and packaged for storage at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. The compartments are then shipped to and stored at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The primary system components housed inside the reactor compartment include: the reactor pressure vessel, reactor shielding, main coolant pumps, pressurizer system, and steam generators. 
 Source:  http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/eng/reactor.html 
 Reference:  United States Department of the Navy. Draft environmental assessment on the disposal of decommissioned, defueled naval reactor plants from USS Enterprise (CVN-65). U.S. Department of the Navy, 2011, pages 2-2 - 2-5. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  GIF 
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 Title:  Reactor compartment packages at the Hanford Site's trench 94 Add
 Summary:  Defueled reactor compartments from decommissioned submarines are housed in enclosures in trench 94 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The defueled compartments are removed from submarines and packaged at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, then shipped by barge and trailer to Hanford. 
 Source:  http://navy.memorieshop.com/Subs/Tunny/Tunny-Reactor.html 
 Date:   1994 
 Subject(s):  Hanford Site | Ship-Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Reactor core being lowered into pressure vessel Add
 Summary:  The reactor core is lowered into the pressure vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Shippingport plant was "the first large-scale central station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electrical power." Based upon the demonstrated success of Naval Reactors in the development of pressurized water reactor plants, starting with the Mark I/S1W plant, Admiral Hyman Rickover was assigned responsibility for the Shippingport project by the Atomic Energy Commission. Consistent with the practice used for S1W's design and construction, the AEC contracted with Westinghouse Electric for the Shippingport's plant, with Naval Reactors again serving in its oversight role for the design, development, and construction activities at the Shippingport station. 
 Source:  http://explorepahistory.com/displayimage.php?imgId=7290 
 Reference:  U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Duquesne Light Company, and International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1958, pages v-viii. 
 Date:   1957 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Reactor safety planning for the Prometheus Project, For NR information Add
 Summary:  This letter, submitted to Naval Reactors by its two primary contractor laboratories (Knolls and Bettis) describes "the initial safety plan for Prometheus project reactor safety work" (1). The expected areas of support include cold physics experiments to support the Prometheus reactor design and operational testing. By this point in the project timeline, the Direct Gas Brayton Reactor system had been selected by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT), which commenced early stage design work. But by September, Project Prometheus itself was cancelled and the formal partnership between NASA and Naval Reactors on the project came to an end. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:  06 May 2005 
 Subject(s):  Project Prometheus | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Reactor shielding design manual Add
 Chapter title:  "Plant layout and other factors affecting total shield design" 
 Summary:  This manual, edited by Theodore Rockwell of the early Naval Reactors group, is designed to provide an engineering overview of shielding design issues. This chapter focuses on plant shielding design. It provides an overview of plant shielding needs and design goals for the primary and secondary shields. One important purpose of the primary shield concerns accessibility to the reactor compartment: "The reactor shield must reduce residual radiation from the core to levels allowing accessibility at a reasonable time after shutdown to the region between the coolant and reactor shields" (158). It also includes a listing of shielding design recommendations. To support self-shielding, "the most highly radioactive sources should be located in the center of the compartment, and components of lower source strength should be arranged progressively outward" (159). Additionally, "in plants having more than one primary loop, a symmetrical arrangement of primary loops around the primary shield should be adopted" (160). The chapter concludes with information on shielding in shipboard applications. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1956 
 Subject(s):  Reactor shielding | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Reactor shielding design manual Add
 Chapter title:  "Introduction and outline of basic shielding theory" 
 Summary:  This manual, edited by Theodore Rockwell of the early Naval Reactors group, is designed to provide an engineering overview of shielding design issues. The introductory chapter provides a pathfinder for the manual as a whole. Rockwell defines "shield engineering" as "the art of [lowering radiation levels] within specified limits of weight, volume, or cost" (4). He notes that neutron and gamma radiation are the primary focus of shield design and describes methods (such as the use of specific materials and shield compositions) used to achieve neutron and gamma-ray attenuation. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1956 
 Subject(s):  Reactor shielding | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Reactor vessel closure head Add
 Summary:  The closure head is lowered to the top of the reactor vessel in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The closure head had 46 penetrations; 32 for the control rod drive mechanisms, along with refueling and instrumentation ports. The closure head was bolted and welded to the lower section of the reaction vessel to create a pressure-tight and leak-tight seal. 
 Source:  http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/PA1658/ 
 Reference:  U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Duquesne Light Company, and International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1958, pages 63-69. 
 Date:  20 April 1964 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Reactor vessel positioned on its side Add
 Summary:  The lower portion of the 264 ton reactor vessel, used for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The vessel is positioned on its side in Shippingport's fuel handling building prior to its installation in the plant. The reactor vessel housed the reactor's fuel assembly, control rods, and thermal shields. Pressurized water flows from each of the loops into the four inlet nozzles at the vessel's bottom; heated water flows to each of the loops from the four outlet nozzles at the top. 
 Source:  http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/PA1658/ 
 Reference:  U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Duquesne Light Company, and International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1958, pages 63-69. 
 Date:  10 October 1956 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Report of the Underseas Warfare Advisory Panel to the Subcommittee on Military Applications. August 1958 Add
 Summary:  This report was produced by the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy's Underseas Warfare Advisory Panel to the Subcommittee on Military Applications. It was motivated in part upon the planned construction of ballistic missile submarines, which employed two technologies, "the nuclear-propelled submarine, and the submarine-launched intermediate-range ballistic missile" (5). Several of the recommendations impacted the size of the Naval Reactors program, including requests that "the rate and scale of our attack submarine construction program should be significantly increased" and that "the Navy should immediately proceed with the construction of an initial task unit of nine Polaris submarines, and authorization and appropriations for this purpose should be requested of the present session of the Congress" (4). The S5W reactor plant was used in the early ballistic missile submarines, beginning with the USS George Washington. 
 Source:  http://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/3331944 
 Date:   1958 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Report on low enriched uranium for naval reactor cores Add
 Summary:  This report examines the potential use of LEU (low-enriched uranium, defined as 20% or lower, U-235 isotope) compared with the HEU (highly-enriched uranium, 93% or higher, U-235 isotope) that's currently used in United States naval nuclear reactors. This study is a successor to a 1995 report written by Naval Reactors. The Background section provides a good summary of program history, including its emphasis on conservative engineering design. Most importantly, "pressurized water reactor, with HEU fuel in high integrity fuel elements has proven to be the optimum design to meet the essential functional requirements for nuclear propulsion for warships, as well as to provide very long core lifetimes for maximum affordability and ship readiness" (3). Because of the specialized engineering and science resources that are fully committed to current Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program support, the report argues that both additional funding and research ahead of shipboard application are essential for LEU to be a more competitive naval nuclear propulsion option. 
 Source:  http://fissilematerials.org/library/doe14.pdf 
 Date:   2014 
 Subject(s):  Highly enriched uranium (HEU) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Report on use of low enriched uranium in naval nuclear propulsion Add
 Summary:  This report was created by the Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion and submitted to Congress consistent with the requirements of Public Law 103-337. The Executive Summary notes that a lengthy and expensive development period would be required to employ an LEU (low enriched uranium) naval nuclear reactor. Significant cost add-ons, relative to the current use of highly enriched uranium (HEU), are described in the report. 
 Source:  http://pogoarchives.org/m/nss/doe-cong-rpt-heu-naval-fuel-19950600.pdf 
 Date:   1995 
 Subject(s):  Highly enriched uranium (HEU) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Request for Naval Reactors comment on Project Prometheus Add
 Summary:  A formal request, from the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) to Naval Reactors requesting comment on the reactor safety requirements for NASA's Project Prometheus. Project Prometheus was created in 2003 to design reactors for long-duration space missions. The NRPCT, requesting the review, included engineers from Lockeed Martin, the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, and the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (the latter two being long-time contractors for Naval Reactors). The letter describes the team's primary goal: "Consistent with Naval Reactors program philosophy...no undue risk to the health and safety of workers, the public, or adverse effects to the environment should result from activities associated with the nuclear reactor of the Prometheus project." 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=883434 
 Date:  28 April 2005 
 Subject(s):  Project Prometheus | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Review of naval reactor program and Admiral Rickover award Add
 Summary:  This document is the unclassified record of two Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearings from April 1959. At the second hearing, Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover, who led the Naval Reactors program, was presented with a congressional gold medal in recognition of his efforts, which included the successful application of nuclear power to submarines and Naval Reactors support for the first nuclear power plant designed for civilian purposes. A significant portion of the hearing addresses reactor safety and radiological controls issues. The joint Atomic Energy Commission and Navy responsibilities in the Naval Reactors program is nicely described by Rickover during a discussion on reactor safety: "Before the Nautilus reactor was started we drew up an agreement between the AEC and the Department of Defense which recognized that each agency had a responsibility where the safeguards aspect of naval reactors was concerned....This agreement, and the memorandums of understanding between the AEC and the Navy which followed it, provided that the AEC would present the design of the reactor plant to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards for a safety review and that the results of this review would be forwarded by the AEC to the Navy for their guidance. The reactor plant would then become the responsibility of the Navy, except that the Navy was obligated to make available to the AEC all pertinent information and data concerning operation, including safety standards and operational experiences" (5). The first April 1959 hearing was held on board the USS Skipjack, a newly-commissioned nuclear submarine, and both Rickover and Captain Eugene Wilkinson (the first captain of the USS Nautilus) describe the improvements between the Nautilus, which was commissioned in 1954, and the Skipjack, including improved speed and underwater performance, a shift to a single propeller for propulsion, and easing access to machinery for maintenance. Rickover describes the program's rapid growth, following the successful operation of the S1W plant, the Nautilus, and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. At this point in 1959, "Congress has authorized a total of 33 nuclear-powered submarines. Of the 33, 5 are presently in operation and the others are either under construction or shortly will be under construction....Congress has also authorized a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier...a nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser and a nuclear-powered fleet destroyer" (29-30). 
 Source:  http://collections.stanford.edu/atomicenergy/bin/search/advanced/process?clauseMapped%28catKey%29=3163480&sort=title 
 Date:   1959 
 Subject(s):  Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Rickover and the nuclear navy: The discipline of technology Add
 Summary:  An official history of the Naval Reactors program written by the late Francis Duncan. Duncan was co-author of Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962, the foundational history of the program. 
 Source:  http://energy.gov/management/downloads/duncan-rickover-and-nuclear-navy 
 Date:   1990 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors | Rickover, Hyman G. | USS Thresher (SSN-593) | USS Nimitz (CVN-68) | Reactor safety 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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