Naval Reactors History Database (nrhdb)
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 Title:  A1W under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory Add
 Summary:  The A1W prototype, under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. Heat-dissipating spray ponds used by the S1W prototype are visible in the foreground. A1W was a two reactor, one steam plant/shaft prototype plant, parallel to one of the Enterprise's four propulsion plants. Construction of the A1W prototype began in the spring of 1956; first criticality for the first of its two reactors was achieved in October 1958. As with the S1W plant and the Nautilus, the design and construction of the A1W prototype slightly led that of the USS Enterprise. 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/proving-the-principle/chapter_10.pdf 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 280-281 and 317. 
 Date:  circa 1956 
 Subject(s):  A1W | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  PNG 
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 Title:  Addendum to 1995 settlement agreement Add
 Summary:  This is an addendum to the 1995 joint settlement agreement regarding spent fuel processing activities at the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility (ECF). The parties to the agreement and its addendum include the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the United States Navy. It clarifies how the Naval Reactors program can use the ECF for spent fuel processing. The addendum explicitly states that "all Naval spent fuel shipped to Idaho after January 1, 2035, must meet the national security requirements" described in the 1995 settlement (1). It also defines specific spent fuel volumes that may be maintained at the facility. For example, metric tons limits are stated for fuel being used for examination and "queuing for shipment to a repository or storage facility outside Idaho" (2). As with the original 1995 settlement agreement, the addendum supports the work of the joint Navy-Department of Energy Naval Reactors program in its spent fuel processing activities at the ECF, while reducing the ability to use the INL for the long-term storage of spent reactor fuel. 
 Source:  http://www.ecfrecapitalization.us/ 
 Date:  04 June 2008 
 Subject(s):  Expended Core Facility | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Admiral Rickover just outside of the S1W hull entrance Add
 Summary:  Admiral Hyman Rickover (at center of group) at a hull entrance for the Mark I, or S1W, reactor plant. The S1W (the Nautilus prototype) achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953; two months later, reactor power was used to drive the prototype's shaft. Rickover then ordered a continuous 100 hour run of the S1W propulsion plant that demonstrated beyond question the revolutionary impact that nuclear propulsion would have upon submarines. 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/proving-the-principle/chapter_10.pdf 
 Reference:  Rockwell, Theodore. The Rickover Effect: How One Man Made a Difference. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse, 2002, pages 133-137 and 140-143. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S1W | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  PNG 
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 Title:  Aerial view of General Dynamics Electric Boat Add
 Summary:  An aerial photo of the General Dynamics Electric Boat yard in Groton, Connecticut. Electric Boat designed and built the first two nuclear submarines, the Nautilus and the Seawolf, and served as the lead yard for the early nuclear submarine classes, such as Skate and Skipjack. Electric Boat continues its pivotal role in submarine design and construction, including its lead yard responsibility for the USS Virginia (SSN-774) class of attack submarines. 
 Source:  http://www.sprol.com/2005/05/connecticut-submarines-part-2-general-dynamics-electric-boat-division/ 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 297-307. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Aerial view of the S1C prototype plant Add
 Summary:  An aerial view of the S1C prototype plant building. The S1C was the prototype for the Tullibee (SSN-597), a small (approximately 2,300 tons displacement) hunter-killer submarine. The plant was designed and constructed by Combustion Engineering and was located at the company's plant in Windsor, Connecticut. The plant's design was unique in that steam turbines powered an electric propulsion motor, as opposed to a set of reduction gears. 
 Source:  http://www.coldwar-ct.com/Knoll_Labs_-_Windsor.html 
 Reference:  Hewlett, Richard G., and Francis Duncan. Nuclear Navy, 1946-1962. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974, pages 317 and 355. 
 Date:   1987 
 Subject(s):  S1C | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Aerial view of the S1W prototype building Add
 Summary:  An aerial view of the S1W prototype building, located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S1W (or Mark I) plant was the world's first power reactor; it used pressurized water as both coolant and moderator. S1W served as the prototype plant for the USS Nautilus, and as a testing and training plant for the Naval Reactors program until 1989. 
 Source:  http://www.inl.gov/proving-the-principle/chapter_08.pdf 
 Reference:  Rockwell, Theodore. The Rickover Effect: How One Man Made a Difference. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse, 2002, pages 117-145. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  S1W | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  PNG 
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 Title:  Amended notice of intent to revise the scope of an Environmental Impact Statement for the recapitalization of infrastructure supporting naval spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory Add
 Summary:  In this May 2012 Federal Register announcement, "the DOE Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP) announce[d] its intent to revise the scope to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Recapitalization of Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling and Examination Facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL)" (27448). The announcement invited comments for a revised and narrower scope for recapitalization (compared with that described in a July 2010 Federal Register announcement). It describes the responsibilities of the Naval Reactors organization ("all aspects of U.S. Navy nuclear power and propulsion," including the management of spent nuclear fuel removed from naval reactor cores during defueling and refueling operations") (27448). It provides a high-level overview of how the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at the INL supports the program's spent fuel handling efforts, describes issues with facilities aging, and includes a short description of ECF recapitalization efforts. As noted, comments are solicited on the recapitalization of spent fuel handling facilities, with three alternative scenarios being considered, including the construction of a new spent fuel handling facility, upgrade of existing facilities at the ECF, and maintenance of existing capabilities. 
 Source:  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-05-10/pdf/2012-11292.pdf#page=1 
 Date:  10 May 2012 
 Subject(s):  Expended Core Facility | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Artist's conception of CVN 21-class carrier Add
 Summary:  An artist's concept of a CVN 21 reactor, the first of which will be the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), scheduled for commissioning in 2015. The CVN 21 carriers will be powered by two A1B reactor plants, the successor to the A4W plant. 
 Source:  http://navalphotos.blogspot.com/2011_01_31_archive.html 
 Date:  08 July 2005 
 Subject(s):  A1B | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Artist's conception of the USS Thresher, showing location of torpedo tubes Add
 Summary:  An artist's conception of the USS Thresher firing torpedoes from its midships torpedo tubes. Since the Thresher's sonar equipment was located in the bow, her four torpedo tubes were placed further back in the hull. 
 Source:  http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-t/ssn593-g.htm 
 Date:  circa 1960 
 Subject(s):  S5W | USS Thresher (SSN-593) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Atomic shield: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Add
 Chapter title:  "Atomic power: Quandry and quagmire" 
 Summary:  This chapter, from an official history of the AEC, provides a detailed account of the creation of the Naval Reactors program in the context of other activities of the Atomic Energy Commission. Authors Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan (who later cowrote the first official history of the Naval Reactors program) describe the push by Chief of the Bureau of Ships Admiral Earle Mills and Captain Hyman Rickover to create a joint Navy-Atomic Energy Commission program that would, working with private industry, lead the development of a nuclear submarine. One of the strengths of this study is that it shows how the Navy's demands were balanced by the AEC, given the Commission's other responsibilities and the competing demands that it was placing upon vendors like General Electric. The authors describe a series of events in 1948-1949, during which Westinghouse agreed to support the design of the Mark I (S1W) pressurized water reactor plant and General Electric was becoming more deeply engaged with naval nuclear propulsion work. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1969 
 Subject(s):  S1W | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Atomic shield: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Add
 Chapter title:  "Science: Shield of the free world?" 
 Summary:  This chapter describes some early Naval Reactors-led development efforts in the context of other activities of the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1952, three development efforts were underway: S1W and S2W (Mark I and Mark II) design and construction; S1G (Mark A) design and construction; and, design work for a carrier reactor - an effort that evolved into the civilian reactor plant for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The carrier project in 1950-1952 was based on a breeder reactor design that would enable the AEC to meet three goals: Moving forward with large ship propulsion; increasing plutonium production; and, increasing electric power production. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1969 
 Subject(s):  S1W | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Atoms for Peace + 50: Nuclear energy & science for the 21st century Add
 Summary:  Transcript of remarks by Admiral Frank Bowman, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, at a Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis-sponsored conference in 2003. Bowman advocates for commercial nuclear power, arguing that the United States "take immediate steps to significantly increase our energy production from nuclear power" (3). He describes the primary attributes of the Naval Reactors program, including: "technical excellence and technical competence"; high standards for personnel selection; "formality and discipline" in plant operations; and, an approach to reactor safety that "mainsteams in each operator a total commitment to safety" (2). Bowman advocates for improved public education on nuclear power and radiation exposure to improve public support for commercial nuclear power. There are some typographical errors in this document. 
 Source:  http://www.ifpafletcherconference.com/oldtranscripts/2003/DOE/bowman.pdf 
 Date:  22 October 2003 
 Subject(s):  Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Atoms for peace and war: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Add
 Chapter title:  "Nuclear power for the market place" 
 Summary:  The authors of this AEC official history, Richard Hewlett and Jack Holl, note the starting point: "in the case of nuclear power...the entire technology was confined within the federal government in 1953" (VII-1). This fact underscores the central leadership role that the AEC was required to take to launch a commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. They note that the success of the S1W (or Mark I) reactor, which began full-power operations in mid-1953, "convinced government officials and members of the Joint Committee [on Atomic Energy] that nuclear power was a reality" (VII-4). Rickover's success with the S1W led the AEC to assign the Naval Reactors organization with the responsibility of overseeing the design and construction of the first commercial power reactor, which became the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Like the S1W and the Nautilus shipyard plant, the Shippingport reactor was a pressurized water reactor. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1989 
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Rickover, Hyman G. | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Authorizing legislation for destroyer reactor plant Add
 Summary:  This hearing document describes an appropriation to support the construction of the destroyer prototype plant D1G at the General Electric facility in West Milton, New York. The primary purpose of the D1G project was “to provide for development of the lightest practicable pressurized water reactor plant which can be effectively utilized in the Navy's nuclear-powered destroyer which is included in the fiscal year 1959 shipbuilding program” (2). The D1G reactor plant itself incorporated “advances in the areas of nuclear physics, heat transfer, reactor control, fuel element design and core life” (2). The hearing focuses on related issues, such as the status and timing of the Navy’s request for the nuclear-powered destroyer and the D1G’s relation to the aircraft carrier prototype, then under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. Additionally, there is a dialogue on the need for the prototype plant, given the information that was available based on the operation of existing nuclear-powered prototypes and submarines. W. Kenneth Davis, Director of the AEC’s Division of Reactor Development, notes that the D1G is prototype will represent “a new and advanced type of propulsion plant,” making the construction of a prototype necessary (6). 
 Source:  http://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/5461058 
 Date:   1958 
 Subject(s):  D1G | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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