Naval Reactors History Database (nrhdb)
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 Title:  Defueling the S2G reactor Add
 Summary:  This report describes the defueling of Seawolf's S2G reactor plant at Electric Boat in January 1959. This defueling was accomplished as part of the Seawolf's conversion from the sodium-cooled, intermediate range S2G reactor to a pressurized water reactor (PWR), owing to problems with the sodium-cooled design. These serious problems, which plagued the S1G (or Mark A) prototype and S2G shipboard plants, demonstrated the clear superiority of the PWR design in submarine propulsion. The report describes the importance of training (for Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Electric Boat, and Navy personnel who worked on the defueling) consisting of lectures and dry-runs that took place in the fall of 1958. The dry-runs enabled workers to check the condition of refueling equipment and time estimates for the completion of maintenance steps. (The summary on page 18 describes the importance of dry-runs and recommends some best practices for accomplishing them.) The dry-runs also contributed to the success in minimizing radiation exposure when the refueling was performed: "No individuals were exposed to more than the maximum permissible daily dose, 50 [millirem]" (3). The report provides an overview of the steps performed in defueling the sodium-cooled reactor. It also provides a summary of lessons learned, including: failure of a brazed joint in a cup designed to catch sodium drippage from fuel elements, which was identified during the dry run operation and fixed by using cups with welded joints; and, gas leakage from a transfer cask. Also, there was a report of difficulty in grappling an S2G fuel rod that was being removed, due to wear in the grappling equipment. After completion of the refueling, the S2G's fuel rods were shipped via train to the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1959 
 Subject(s):  S2G | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 1985 Congressional budget request: Atomic energy defense activities Add
 Summary:  The FY 1985 Naval Reactors budget request, part of the Department of Energy's request for FY 1985. The program overview notes the importance of NR's support for national security, in that "the most survivable leg of our strategic defense triad" is based upon nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (674). One interesting aspect of the overview is that, in the list of benefits gained from advanced reactor development, the reduction of plant operators is not included. This could be considered the pre-drawdown perspective on reactor development. The importance of the Expended Core Facility's work is emphasized by the statement that "examination of spent reactor cores provides valuable information about core performance and the effects of reactor operation on reactor materials" (676). The role of computer systems in core and component design is described in the "Nuclear Design and Analysis" section. In 1984, there were eight naval nuclear prototype plants in operation. (By 2011, the number of prototypes had been reduced to four.) The request notes the importance of the ability to test reactor cores and components in these plants: "no amount of analysis or accelerated testing can provide the data which can be obtained from the actual in-service experience obtained by operating the prototypes" (682). The prototypes' role in operator training is described in the "Reactor Operation and Testing" section. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   1984 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  The Naval Reactors budget request, part of the National Nuclear Security Agency request, for fiscal year 2007. The request notes Naval Reactors' cradle-to-grave role in naval nuclear propulsion and the fact that the nuclear navy of submarines and aircraft carriers constituted 40 percent of the Navy's combatant vessels in 2006. Development areas described in the request include the high-energy reactor for CVN 21 (the A1B reactor) and the Transformational Technology Core (TTC) for future Virginia-class attack submarines. The TTC is designed to increase core energy density without an increase in plant size or weight. The request also provides information on the work of NR divisions (Plant Technology, Reactor Technology and Analysis, Materials Development and Verification, Evaluation and Servicing) in 2006, including their recent accomplishments and goals. 
 Source:  http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy06/pdf/budget/energy.pdf 
 Date:   2006 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  This budget request provides an update on Naval Reactors activities and information on NR's future goals. The FY 2008 budget request for Naval Reactors was approximately $808 million. One of the described development areas is the reactor for the CVN 21 (the A1B reactor): "The new high-energy reactor design...represents a critical leap in capability" (531). The A1B reactor will have "nearly three times the electric plant generating capability" compared with the Nimitz-class A4W plants, and will require only half the number of plant operators (531). The request also has information on two reactor core development paths: Transformational Technology Core (TTC) and the use of fuel from nuclear weapons programs. A detailed justification is also included, describing the work of divisions within Naval Reactors. Developments to the A1B reactor are prominent across divisions, including reactor instrumentation and control rod drive mechanism design and development. 
 Source:  http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/08budget/Content/Volumes/Vol_1_NNSA.pdf 
 Date:   2007 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2009 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  This document provides a detailed summary of the Naval Reactors budget request for fiscal year 2009. NR's total budget request for FY 2009 was $828.1 million. The request notes that "the program's number-one priority is ensuring the safety and reliability of the 103 operating naval reactor plants" (549). The request includes development support for the Virginia-class fast attack submarine reactor and the CVN 21-class (or A1B) reactor plant. The request for the "Evaluation and Servicing" section was significantly increased from the previous fiscal year due to maintenance and assessment costs at the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility. The request notes the resources that NR draws upon, including the Bettis and Knolls laboratories and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. 
 Source:  http://nnsa.energy.gov/sites/default/files/nnsa/inlinefiles/FY09_Budget_Request.pdf 
 Date:   2008 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2010 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  This document describes the fiscal year 2010 budget request for Naval Reactors, as part of the larger National Nuclear Security Administration request. The Naval Reactors request for FY 2010 was just over one billion dollars. The document describes the major achievements of Naval Reactors in FY 2008, including the completion of sea trials for the USS George H.W. Bush, the last Nimitz-class carrier and the completion of 85 percent of the A1B design work for the successor class of nuclear-powered carriers. Additionally, two Virginia-class submarines were commissioned, bringing the total for the class to five. Several strategic areas are identified going forward, including a propulsion plant for the successor to the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines; the refueling of the S8G (Ohio) prototype plant; and, investing in the program's spent fuel processing infrastructure. Summaries of the work of the divisions within Naval Reactors are included in the budget request. 
 Source:  http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/10budget/Content/Volumes/Volume1.pdf 
 Date:   2009 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2011 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  The fiscal year budget request for Naval Reactors, included as part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) request. The Naval Reactors request for FY 2011 was just over $1 billion. The "Validation and Verification" section notes NNSA's role in evaluating the Naval Reactors program through its Programming, Planning, Budgeting and Evaluation (PPBE) process. Strategic areas of emphasis for FY 2011 included: Reactor plant design for the successor to the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine; refueling of the S8G prototype, to support the development of advanced core technology; and, enhancing the spent fuel infrastructure at the Naval Reactors Facility, located at the Idaho National Laboratory. 
 Source:  http://www.cfo.doe.gov/budget/11budget/Content/Volume%201.pdf 
 Date:   2010 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  The Naval Reactors fiscal year 2012 budget request is included as part of the larger National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) request. Several priority efforts are described in detail, including replacing the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and refueling of the S8G prototype, which was used for component testing for the later Virginia- and Seawolf-class submarines. Additionally, funding is requested for the upgrading of the spent fuel processing infrastructure at the Idaho National Laboratory's Naval Reactors Facility; the request notes that "all spent naval nuclear fuel from Navy shipyards is shipped to [NRF] for examination and disposal" (439). The needed upgrades include processing water pools, cranes, and fuel examination equipment. The FY 2012 request is for $1.07 billion dollars, an increase from NR's FY 2010 appropriation of 877 million dollars. 
 Source:  http://www.nnsa.energy.gov/aboutus/budget 
 Date:   2011 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration Add
 Summary:  This National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) FY 2013 budget request includes a request of 1.1 billion dollars for Naval Reactors, a less than one percent increase over the FY 2012 request. The appropriations summary notes that nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and submarines currently comprise over 40 percent of the nation's combatant vessels. It also describes several high-level strategic goals: "Continued execution of the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine replacement project, land-based prototype refueling overhaul, and the recapitalization of NR's spent fuel handling infrastructure" (9). One of the key accomplishments of Naval Reactors in FY 2012 related to Virginia-class Block II submarines, including the commissioning of the USS California (SSN-781) and the construction of two additional Block II subs, the USS Mississippi (SSN-782) and the USS Minnesota (SSN-783). The request also describes significant activities in the spent fuel processing area for aircraft carrier reactors in the past year, including delivery of the M-290 spent fuel shipping containers and upgrades to the Expended Core Facility to support the M-290 containers; these measures show the "continued preparations for the inactivation and disposal of CVN-65 (USS Enterprise), the first-ever nuclear powered aircraft carrier decommissioning" (481). Key milestones planned for FY 2013 are continued reactor plant design work for the Gerald R. Ford-class of super carriers (to 98 percent completion) and the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine replacement (to 23 percent completion). Finally, the interrelationship between NR and other NNSA programs is illustrated by the discussion of the Uranium Processing Facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This facility "provide[s] uranium as feedstock for fuel for naval reactors" (244). 
 Source:  http://www.nnsa.energy.gov/aboutus/budget 
 Date:   2012 
 Subject(s):  Budgetary information | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Documentation of Naval Reactors papers and presentations for the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) 2006 Add
 Summary:  This document contains information on the presentations and papers (24 in all) prepared by the Knolls and Bettis Atomic Power laboratories for the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) 2006 conference. These presentations describe the work of Naval Reactors and its contractor laboratories, Bettis and Knolls, for NASA's Project Prometheus, which was created to investigate the possible use of nuclear-powered systems for long duration space missions. At the time of the project, Naval Reactors was designated by the Department of Energy as the lead agency for the development of civilian space reactor systems. NR engaged the two contractor laboratories to investigate issues related to deep space reactors. The presentations cover topics such as reactor design, reactor instrumentation, and plant materials. 
 Source:  http://www.osti.gov/bridge 
 Date:   2006 
 Subject(s):  Project Prometheus | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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 Title:  Downcomers and risers piping, Shippingport secondary plant Add
 Summary:  Piping for downcomers and risers in the B loop of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. These pipes connected the loop's Babcock & Wilcox U-shell steam generator with a steam drum, and through the steam drum with the plant's secondary system. 
 Source:  http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/PA1658/ 
 Reference:  U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Duquesne Light Company, and International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. The Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1958, page 33. 
 Date:   unknown  
 Subject(s):  Shippingport Atomic Power Station | Nuclear engineering | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Image 
 Format:  JPEG 
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 Title:  Draft environmental assessment on the disposal of naval reactors plants from USS Enterprise (CVN-65) Add
 Summary:  This document provides information on the preferred disposal plan for the eight defueled reactor plants in the USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. It lays out the timeline for Enterprise's deactivation; it "is expected to enter dry dock at Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia for inactivation in 2013. Defueling will be conducted at Newport News Shipbuilding. Inactivation is expected to be complete in about 2017 or 2018" (1-1). At that point, Enterprise will be towed to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS & IMF) for removal of the already-defueled reactor compartments. The compartments will be packaged and shipped to the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The actual shipment of the packages to Hanford is estimated to occur between 2023 and 2027. The assessment includes information on the estimated exposure required for the preparation and packaging of the compartments (about 300 rem of collective radiation exposure") (2-2). Page 2-6 includes a diagram that shows the locations of the eight reactor compartments on board the Enterprise, which are paired in four propulsion plants. The assessment describes the methodology for transporting the packages to Hanford and describes transport challenges and accident scenarios. The document also describes an interim "no-action alternative" to the preferred plan: placing the Enterprise in waterborne storage at the PSNS & IMF facility. This alternative has the disadvantage of "only delay[ing] ultimate permanent disposal" (2-17). 
 Source:  http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/EA-1889-DEA-2011.pdf 
 Date:   2011 
 Subject(s):  A2W | USS Enterprise (CVN-65) | Hanford Site | Ship-Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) | Naval Reactors 
 Type:  Text 
 Format:  PDF 
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