http://www.rssboard.org/rss-specification 720 Naval Reactors History Database (browse-all=yes) http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/search?browse-all%3Dyes Results for your query: browse-all=yes Sun, 01 Jan 1956 12:00:00 GMT A1W under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/004/004.html The A1W prototype, under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. Heat-dissipating spray ponds used by the S1W prototype are visible in the foreground. A1W was a two reactor, one steam plant/shaft prototype plant, parallel to one of the Enterprise's four propulsion plants. Construction of the A1W prototype began in the spring of 1956; first criticality for the first of its two reactors was achieved in October 1958. As with the S1W plant and the Nautilus, the design and construction of the A1W prototype slightly led that of the USS Enterprise. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/004/004.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Addendum to 1995 settlement agreement. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/068/068.pdf This is an addendum to the 1995 joint settlement agreement regarding spent fuel processing activities at the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility (ECF). The parties to the agreement and its addendum include the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the United States Navy. It clarifies how the Naval Reactors program can use the ECF for spent fuel processing. The addendum explicitly states that "all Naval spent fuel shipped to Idaho after January 1, 2035, must meet the national security requirements" described in the 1995 settlement (1). It also defines specific spent fuel volumes that may be maintained at the facility. For example, metric tons limits are stated for fuel being used for examination and "queuing for shipment to a repository or storage facility outside Idaho" (2). As with the original 1995 settlement agreement, the addendum supports the work of the joint Navy-Department of Energy Naval Reactors program in its spent fuel processing activities at the ECF, while reducing ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/068/068.pdf Wed, 04 Jun 2008 12:00:00 GMT Admiral Rickover just outside of the S1W hull entrance. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/003/003.html Admiral Hyman Rickover (at center of group) at a hull entrance for the Mark I, or S1W, reactor plant. The S1W (the Nautilus prototype) achieved initial criticality on 30 March 1953; two months later, reactor power was used to drive the prototype's shaft. Rickover then ordered a continuous 100 hour run of the S1W propulsion plant that demonstrated beyond question the revolutionary impact that nuclear propulsion would have upon submarines. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/003/003.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Aerial view of General Dynamics Electric Boat. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/059/059.html An aerial photo of the General Dynamics Electric Boat yard in Groton, Connecticut. Electric Boat designed and built the first two nuclear submarines, the Nautilus and the Seawolf, and served as the lead yard for the early nuclear submarine classes, such as Skate and Skipjack. Electric Boat continues its pivotal role in submarine design and construction, including its lead yard responsibility for the USS Virginia (SSN-774) class of attack submarines. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/059/059.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Aerial view of the S1C prototype plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/042/042.html An aerial view of the S1C prototype plant building. The S1C was the prototype for the Tullibee (SSN-597), a small (approximately 2,300 tons displacement) hunter-killer submarine. The plant was designed and constructed by Combustion Engineering and was located at the company's plant in Windsor, Connecticut. The plant's design was unique in that steam turbines powered an electric propulsion motor, as opposed to a set of reduction gears. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/042/042.html Thu, 01 Jan 1987 12:00:00 GMT Aerial view of the S1W prototype building. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/007/007.html An aerial view of the S1W prototype building, located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S1W (or Mark I) plant was the world's first power reactor; it used pressurized water as both coolant and moderator. S1W served as the prototype plant for the USS Nautilus, and as a testing and training plant for the Naval Reactors program until 1989. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/007/007.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Amended notice of intent to revise the scope of an Environmental Impact Statement for the recapitalization of infrastructure supporting naval spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/082/082.pdf In this May 2012 Federal Register announcement, "the DOE Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP) announce[d] its intent to revise the scope to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Recapitalization of Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Handling and Examination Facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL)" (27448). The announcement invited comments for a revised and narrower scope for recapitalization (compared with that described in a July 2010 Federal Register announcement). It describes the responsibilities of the Naval Reactors organization ("all aspects of U.S. Navy nuclear power and propulsion," including the management of spent nuclear fuel removed from naval reactor cores during defueling and refueling operations") (27448). It provides a high-level overview of how the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at the INL supports the program's spent fuel handling efforts, describes issues with facilities aging, and includes a short description of ECF recapitalization efforts. As noted, comments are solici... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/082/082.pdf Thu, 10 May 2012 12:00:00 GMT Artist's conception of CVN 21-class carrier. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/066/066.html An artist's concept of a CVN 21 reactor, the first of which will be the USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78), scheduled for commissioning in 2015. The CVN 21 carriers will be powered by two A1B reactor plants, the successor to the A4W plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/066/066.html Fri, 08 Jul 2005 12:00:00 GMT Artist's conception of the USS Thresher, showing location of torpedo tubes. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/024/024.html An artist's conception of the USS Thresher firing torpedoes from its midships torpedo tubes. Since the Thresher's sonar equipment was located in the bow, her four torpedo tubes were placed further back in the hull. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/024/024.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Atomic shield: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. United States Atomic Energy Commission. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/029/029.pdf This chapter describes some early Naval Reactors-led development efforts in the context of other activities of the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1952, three development efforts were underway: S1W and S2W (Mark I and Mark II) design and construction; S1G (Mark A) design and construction; and, design work for a carrier reactor - an effort that evolved into the civilian reactor plant for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The carrier project in 1950-1952 was based on a breeder reactor design that would enable the AEC to meet three goals: Moving forward with large ship propulsion; increasing plutonium production; and, increasing electric power production. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/029/029.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1969 12:00:00 GMT Atomic shield: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. United States Atomic Energy Commission. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/030/030.pdf This chapter, from an official history of the AEC, provides a detailed account of the creation of the Naval Reactors program in the context of other activities of the Atomic Energy Commission. Authors Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan (who later cowrote the first official history of the Naval Reactors program) describe the push by Chief of the Bureau of Ships Admiral Earle Mills and Captain Hyman Rickover to create a joint Navy-Atomic Energy Commission program that would, working with private industry, lead the development of a nuclear submarine. One of the strengths of this study is that it shows how the Navy's demands were balanced by the AEC, given the Commission's other responsibilities and the competing demands that it was placing upon vendors like General Electric. The authors describe a series of events in 1948-1949, during which Westinghouse agreed to support the design of the Mark I (S1W) pressurized water reactor plant and General Electric was becoming more deeply engaged with naval nuclear prop... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/030/030.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1969 12:00:00 GMT Atoms for Peace + 50: Nuclear energy & science for the 21st century. Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/086/086.pdf Transcript of remarks by Admiral Frank Bowman, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, at a Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis-sponsored conference in 2003. Bowman advocates for commercial nuclear power, arguing that the United States "take immediate steps to significantly increase our energy production from nuclear power" (3). He describes the primary attributes of the Naval Reactors program, including: "technical excellence and technical competence"; high standards for personnel selection; "formality and discipline" in plant operations; and, an approach to reactor safety that "mainsteams in each operator a total commitment to safety" (2). Bowman advocates for improved public education on nuclear power and radiation exposure to improve public support for commercial nuclear power. There are some typographical errors in this document. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/086/086.pdf Wed, 22 Oct 2003 12:00:00 GMT Atoms for peace and war: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. United States Atomic Energy Commission. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/031/031.pdf The authors of this AEC official history, Richard Hewlett and Jack Holl, note the starting point: "in the case of nuclear power...the entire technology was confined within the federal government in 1953" (VII-1). This fact underscores the central leadership role that the AEC was required to take to launch a commercial nuclear power industry in the United States. They note that the success of the S1W (or Mark I) reactor, which began full-power operations in mid-1953, "convinced government officials and members of the Joint Committee [on Atomic Energy] that nuclear power was a reality" (VII-4). Rickover's success with the S1W led the AEC to assign the Naval Reactors organization with the responsibility of overseeing the design and construction of the first commercial power reactor, which became the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Like the S1W and the Nautilus shipyard plant, the Shippingport reactor was a pressurized water reactor. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/031/031.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 1989 12:00:00 GMT Authorizing legislation for destroyer reactor plant. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Subcommittee on Legislation. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/105/105.pdf This hearing document describes an appropriation to support the construction of the destroyer prototype plant D1G at the General Electric facility in West Milton, New York. The primary purpose of the D1G project was “to provide for development of the lightest practicable pressurized water reactor plant which can be effectively utilized in the Navy's nuclear-powered destroyer which is included in the fiscal year 1959 shipbuilding program” (2). The D1G reactor plant itself incorporated “advances in the areas of nuclear physics, heat transfer, reactor control, fuel element design and core life” (2). The hearing focuses on related issues, such as the status and timing of the Navy’s request for the nuclear-powered destroyer and the D1G’s relation to the aircraft carrier prototype, then under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. Additionally, there is a dialogue on the need for the prototype plant, given the information that was available based on the operation of existing nuclear-powered prototypes a... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/105/105.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1958 12:00:00 GMT Babcock & Wilcox U-shell design steam generator. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/077/077.html One of the two Babcock & Wilcox Company U-shell steam generators being placed in a boiler room at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Each steam generator contained 921 stainless steel tubes, with an outside diameter of 3/4 inch. The U-shaped shells were 38 inches in diameter. It had two hemispherical heads with pipe connections through which primary coolant entered and exited the steam generator. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/077/077.html Wed, 12 Sep 1956 12:00:00 GMT A bibliography of available digital computer codes for nuclear reactor problems. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/050/050.pdf This bibliography was compiled by Alvin Radkowsky, Naval Reactors' chief physicist and Robert S. Brodsky, who specialized in the application of digital computers to reactor design and shielding problems. The introduction describes the document's purpose: to provide "a ready listing of reactor computer codes presently available or in preparation." It also notes that "the codes are for digital computers of the size of the [IBM] Card Programmed Calculator (CPC) or larger" (iii). In their published study of the Naval Reactors program, historians Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan described the role of computer codes in the design for the S5W reactor plant, which was built without the benefit of a prototype: "Such matters as shielding design posed major questions which could be resolved only with the development of new computer codes by both Bettis and Knolls under the direction of Radknowsky and Brodsky." http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/050/050.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 1955 12:00:00 GMT Bow shot of USS Los Angeles at sea. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/082/082.html The USS Los Angeles at sea in 1982. Planning for the Los Angeles-class submarines began in the mid-1960s; the sub class "would have the speed to escort fast surface-strike forces and convoys, protecting them against hostile submarines, and to seek out and destroy enemy missile submarines" (27). The Los Angeles, lead boat in her class, was commissioned in November 1976. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/082/082.html Wed, 01 Dec 1982 12:00:00 GMT Brass pipe recovered from wreckage of USS Thresher. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/030/030.html Photograph of a brass pipe recovered from the wreckage of the USS Thresher in 1963. The pipe was recovered by the bathyscaph Trieste, and it has the information "593 Boat" etched on the pipe. The Thresher was lost on 10 April 1963, with the loss of 129 crewmen and civilian workers. A court of inquiry determined that the most probable cause of the Thresher's loss was a seawater leak that led to a loss of electrical and propulsion power. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/030/030.html Tue, 01 Jan 1963 12:00:00 GMT Containment structure built for the S1G prototype plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/007/007.html The containment building built for the sodium-cooled, intermediate range S1G reactor plant in West Milton, New York. In January 1952, the Atomic Energy Commission's Reactor Safeguards Committee approved the construction of the S1G reactor at West Milton, provided the reactor was enclosed in a containment sphere. The 225 foot sphere, composed of one inch steel plates, was designed to contain any radioactivity release. After the sodium-cooled approach was abandoned by Naval Reactors, the S1G plant was decommissioned. The sphere was later used to house the D1G pressurized water reactor/prototype plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/007/007.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Corrosion and wear handbook. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/078/078.pdf The introduction describes the handbook's purpose: "to accumulate and correlate the pertinent corrosion and wear information" that was the product of the first eight years in developing pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology for naval nuclear propulsion (3). The primary focus of the handbook is corrosion data related to the primary coolant system and steam generators in PWRs. The chapter provides a basic overview of PWR technology and emphasizes the importance of managing corrosion, noting that "only by closely controlling the amount of corrosion products in the primary system can this portion of the nuclear plant be made available for maintenance and repair within a reasonable period of time" after reactor shutdown (5). It includes summary information on stainless steel ("the major material of construction for water-cooled nuclear reactors") and carbon steel (5). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/078/078.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 1957 12:00:00 GMT The cost-effectiveness of nuclear power for Navy surface ships. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/034/034.pdf This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study deals with a point of tension that's existed between the Executive Branch and Congress for decades, the application of nuclear propulsion in the surface fleet. Currently, only United States Navy aircraft carriers are nuclear-powered and "its other surface combatants are powered by engines that use conventional petroleum-based fuels" (1). The study compares the costs of nuclear and non-nuclear surface combatant vessels based upon the CBO's current projection of oil prices in the coming decades, along with projections both under and over this projection. Taking into account construction and operating costs, the CBO then calculates "break-even" points for different categories of ships; that is, the price of oil reaches a level so that the added costs associated with nuclear propulsion are offset (8). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/034/034.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT Defueling the S2G reactor. General Electric Company. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/036/036.pdf This report describes the defueling of Seawolf's S2G reactor plant at Electric Boat in January 1959. This defueling was accomplished as part of the Seawolf's conversion from the sodium-cooled, intermediate range S2G reactor to a pressurized water reactor (PWR), owing to problems with the sodium-cooled design. These serious problems, which plagued the S1G (or Mark A) prototype and S2G shipboard plants, demonstrated the clear superiority of the PWR design in submarine propulsion. The report describes the importance of training (for Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Electric Boat, and Navy personnel who worked on the defueling) consisting of lectures and dry-runs that took place in the fall of 1958. The dry-runs enabled workers to check the condition of refueling equipment and time estimates for the completion of maintenance steps. (The summary on page 18 describes the importance of dry-runs and recommends some best practices for accomplishing them.) The dry-runs also contributed to the success in minimizing... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/036/036.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1959 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 1985 Congressional budget request: Atomic energy defense activities. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/040/040.pdf The FY 1985 Naval Reactors budget request, part of the Department of Energy's request for FY 1985. The program overview notes the importance of NR's support for national security, in that "the most survivable leg of our strategic defense triad" is based upon nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (674). One interesting aspect of the overview is that, in the list of benefits gained from advanced reactor development, the reduction of plant operators is not included. This could be considered the pre-drawdown perspective on reactor development. The importance of the Expended Core Facility's work is emphasized by the statement that "examination of spent reactor cores provides valuable information about core performance and the effects of reactor operation on reactor materials" (676). The role of computer systems in core and component design is described in the "Nuclear Design and Analysis" section. In 1984, there were eight naval nuclear prototype plants in operation. (By 2011, the number of prototype... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/040/040.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 1984 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/024/024.pdf The Naval Reactors budget request, part of the National Nuclear Security Agency request, for fiscal year 2007. The request notes Naval Reactors' cradle-to-grave role in naval nuclear propulsion and the fact that the nuclear navy of submarines and aircraft carriers constituted 40 percent of the Navy's combatant vessels in 2006. Development areas described in the request include the high-energy reactor for CVN 21 (the A1B reactor) and the Transformational Technology Core (TTC) for future Virginia-class attack submarines. The TTC is designed to increase core energy density without an increase in plant size or weight. The request also provides information on the work of NR divisions (Plant Technology, Reactor Technology and Analysis, Materials Development and Verification, Evaluation and Servicing) in 2006, including their recent accomplishments and goals. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/024/024.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 2006 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/021/021.pdf This budget request provides an update on Naval Reactors activities and information on NR's future goals. The FY 2008 budget request for Naval Reactors was approximately $808 million. One of the described development areas is the reactor for the CVN 21 (the A1B reactor): "The new high-energy reactor design...represents a critical leap in capability" (531). The A1B reactor will have "nearly three times the electric plant generating capability" compared with the Nimitz-class A4W plants, and will require only half the number of plant operators (531). The request also has information on two reactor core development paths: Transformational Technology Core (TTC) and the use of fuel from nuclear weapons programs. A detailed justification is also included, describing the work of divisions within Naval Reactors. Developments to the A1B reactor are prominent across divisions, including reactor instrumentation and control rod drive mechanism design and development. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/021/021.pdf Mon, 01 Jan 2007 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2009 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/020/020.pdf This document provides a detailed summary of the Naval Reactors budget request for fiscal year 2009. NR's total budget request for FY 2009 was $828.1 million. The request notes that "the program's number-one priority is ensuring the safety and reliability of the 103 operating naval reactor plants" (549). The request includes development support for the Virginia-class fast attack submarine reactor and the CVN 21-class (or A1B) reactor plant. The request for the "Evaluation and Servicing" section was significantly increased from the previous fiscal year due to maintenance and assessment costs at the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility. The request notes the resources that NR draws upon, including the Bettis and Knolls laboratories and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/020/020.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 2008 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2010 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/022/022.pdf This document describes the fiscal year 2010 budget request for Naval Reactors, as part of the larger National Nuclear Security Administration request. The Naval Reactors request for FY 2010 was just over one billion dollars. The document describes the major achievements of Naval Reactors in FY 2008, including the completion of sea trials for the USS George H.W. Bush, the last Nimitz-class carrier and the completion of 85 percent of the A1B design work for the successor class of nuclear-powered carriers. Additionally, two Virginia-class submarines were commissioned, bringing the total for the class to five. Several strategic areas are identified going forward, including a propulsion plant for the successor to the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines; the refueling of the S8G (Ohio) prototype plant; and, investing in the program's spent fuel processing infrastructure. Summaries of the work of the divisions within Naval Reactors are included in the budget request. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/022/022.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 2009 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2011 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/025/025.pdf The fiscal year budget request for Naval Reactors, included as part of the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) request. The Naval Reactors request for FY 2011 was just over $1 billion. The "Validation and Verification" section notes NNSA's role in evaluating the Naval Reactors program through its Programming, Planning, Budgeting and Evaluation (PPBE) process. Strategic areas of emphasis for FY 2011 included: Reactor plant design for the successor to the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine; refueling of the S8G prototype, to support the development of advanced core technology; and, enhancing the spent fuel infrastructure at the Naval Reactors Facility, located at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/025/025.pdf Fri, 01 Jan 2010 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/019/019.pdf The Naval Reactors fiscal year 2012 budget request is included as part of the larger National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) request. Several priority efforts are described in detail, including replacing the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines and refueling of the S8G prototype, which was used for component testing for the later Virginia- and Seawolf-class submarines. Additionally, funding is requested for the upgrading of the spent fuel processing infrastructure at the Idaho National Laboratory's Naval Reactors Facility; the request notes that "all spent naval nuclear fuel from Navy shipyards is shipped to [NRF] for examination and disposal" (439). The needed upgrades include processing water pools, cranes, and fuel examination equipment. The FY 2012 request is for $1.07 billion dollars, an increase from NR's FY 2010 appropriation of 877 million dollars. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/019/019.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional budget request: National Nuclear Security Administration. National Nuclear Security Agency http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/059/059.pdf This National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) FY 2013 budget request includes a request of 1.1 billion dollars for Naval Reactors, a less than one percent increase over the FY 2012 request. The appropriations summary notes that nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and submarines currently comprise over 40 percent of the nation's combatant vessels. It also describes several high-level strategic goals: "Continued execution of the Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine replacement project, land-based prototype refueling overhaul, and the recapitalization of NR's spent fuel handling infrastructure" (9). One of the key accomplishments of Naval Reactors in FY 2012 related to Virginia-class Block II submarines, including the commissioning of the USS California (SSN-781) and the construction of two additional Block II subs, the USS Mississippi (SSN-782) and the USS Minnesota (SSN-783). The request also describes significant activities in the spent fuel processing area for aircraft carrier reactors in the pas... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/059/059.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 2012 12:00:00 GMT Documentation of Naval Reactors papers and presentations for the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) 2006. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/035/035.pdf This document contains information on the presentations and papers (24 in all) prepared by the Knolls and Bettis Atomic Power laboratories for the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) 2006 conference. These presentations describe the work of Naval Reactors and its contractor laboratories, Bettis and Knolls, for NASA's Project Prometheus, which was created to investigate the possible use of nuclear-powered systems for long duration space missions. At the time of the project, Naval Reactors was designated by the Department of Energy as the lead agency for the development of civilian space reactor systems. NR engaged the two contractor laboratories to investigate issues related to deep space reactors. The presentations cover topics such as reactor design, reactor instrumentation, and plant materials. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/035/035.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 2006 12:00:00 GMT Downcomers and risers piping, Shippingport secondary plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/078/078.html Piping for downcomers and risers in the B loop of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. These pipes connected the loop's Babcock & Wilcox U-shell steam generator with a steam drum, and through the steam drum with the plant's secondary system. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/078/078.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Draft environmental assessment on the disposal of naval reactors plants from USS Enterprise (CVN-65). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/047/047.pdf This document provides information on the preferred disposal plan for the eight defueled reactor plants in the USS Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. It lays out the timeline for Enterprise's deactivation; it "is expected to enter dry dock at Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia for inactivation in 2013. Defueling will be conducted at Newport News Shipbuilding. Inactivation is expected to be complete in about 2017 or 2018" (1-1). At that point, Enterprise will be towed to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS & IMF) for removal of the already-defueled reactor compartments. The compartments will be packaged and shipped to the Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The actual shipment of the packages to Hanford is estimated to occur between 2023 and 2027. The assessment includes information on the estimated exposure required for the preparation and packaging of the compartments (about 300 rem of collective radiation exposure") (2-2). Page 2-... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/047/047.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 2011 12:00:00 GMT The Eisenhower (CVN-69), second Nimitz-class carrier. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/015/015.html The USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) being guided to its berth at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. The Eisenhower is the second Nimitz-class carrier and is powered by two A4W reactors. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/015/015.html Wed, 08 Sep 2010 12:00:00 GMT Engineering Duty Officer Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. Naval Sea Systems Command http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/083/083.pdf This Naval Sea Systems Command instruction describes "the objectives and requirements of the Engineering Duty Officer Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program" (1). Engineering Duty Officers (EDOs) in the program support the cradle-to-grave management responsibilities for all aspects of naval nuclear propulsion, including research, specification, construction, testing, refueling, defueling, and disposal activities. The training requirements for EDOs are summarized in the document, including completion of the Bettis Reactor Engineering School curriculum (equivalent to a Masters Degree in Nuclear Engineering). A separate set of training requirements is listed for officers with prior service in the nuclear propulsion program; these requirements must be completed before receiving the Engineering Duty Officer designator of 144X. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/083/083.pdf Wed, 17 Mar 1999 12:00:00 GMT The Enterprise and the USS George H.W. Bush. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/027/027.html The oldest and newest nuclear-powered carriers (Enterprise/left, George H.W. Bush/right) docked at Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/027/027.html Tue, 30 Nov 2010 12:00:00 GMT The Enterprise steams in the Atlantic Ocean. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/021/021.html The USS Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean. The Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, was inactivated in 2013. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/021/021.html Tue, 19 Oct 2010 12:00:00 GMT An evaluation of data on zirconium-uranium alloys. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/061/061.pdf This document, compiled by Frank Rough of the Battelle Memorial Institute, contains a review of information on zirconium-uranium alloys. As noted in the introduction, "because of the similar properties and fabricational characteristics of these materials, the cladding of zirconium-uranium alloys with Zircaloy has proven to be very successful, with good metallurgical bonds being obtained" (7). This review addresses issues such as the corrosion of zirconium-uranium alloys in high temperature/high pressure systems and the impact of neutron irradiation upon these alloys. These and other issues are addressed and mapped to an extensive bibliography. As described by historians Thomas Hewlett and Francis Duncan in their book Nuclear Navy, Naval Reactors was deeply involved in the development of zirconium production in the United States, with the need to produce tonnage lots of zirconium to support early prototype and submarine reactor core construction. Beyond this, improvements in the technology were needed, s... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/061/061.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 1955 12:00:00 GMT The Expended Core Facility (ECF) under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/009/009.html The Expended Core Facility under construction at the Idaho National Laboratory. The S1W building is visible in the background. The ECF was designed to support the processing of spent fuel cores starting with the initial core of the USS Nautilus, which was removed from the vessel in early 1957. Inside the ECF, cores are moved from one water pit workstation to another; its size was expanded from an initial 340 feet to over 1,000 feet in length. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/009/009.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Exterior view of the A1W (Enterprise prototype) at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/005/005.html The A1W prototype (center) at the Idaho National Laboratory. Construction began on the A1W in April 1956; the prototype consisted of two reactors and the steam plant equipment necessary to drive one shaft. The first A1W reactor reached full power on 17 January 1959 and both reactors operatored together at full power for the first time on 15 September 1959. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/005/005.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Exterior view of the A1W prototype, Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/016/016.html An exterior view of the A1W prototype plant at the Idaho National Laboratory. A1W was the prototype for the Enterprise A2W shipboard reactor plants; the prototype contained two reactors and the steam plant equipment to power one shaft. Data from the A1W prototype were also used in the design of the C1W reactor plant, which powered the USS Long Beach. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/016/016.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Foster Wheeler straight tube steam generator. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/076/076.html One of the two Foster Wheeler straight tube steam generators being placed in a boiler room in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Each generator contained 2,096 stainless steel tubes, with each tube having an outer diameter of one-half inch. The heads of the steam generator each had 18 inch pipe connections to the secondary system. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/076/076.html Sun, 10 Aug 1958 12:00:00 GMT Fuel summary report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/037/037.pdf This report provides an in-depth analysis of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core installed in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station from 1977 to 1982. The core "was developed to prove the concept of a pressurized water breeder reactor" (iv). Its operation was successful, in that the "LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy" (1-1). The core's design was based on a Thorium/U-233 fuel cycle. The U-233 isotope was used because of its high neutron regeneration factor ("the average number of neutrons produced in fission for each neutron absorbed in fissile fuel") relative to U-235 and Pu-239 (3-1). The LWBR design was similar to the two earlier PWR core its use of a seed-blanket design for the reactor fuel. However, one difference between the LWBR and the PWR cores that preceded it in the Shippingport plant was the control mechanism: instead of Hafnium control rods, the breeder plant "was designed with a movable seed, which was raised and lowered to control neutron ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/037/037.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 2002 12:00:00 GMT FY 1999 Naval Reactors budget request. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/011/011.pdf This is the FY 1999 budget request for the Naval Reactors program. It describes the organization's mission ("'cradle to grave' responsibility for Naval nuclear propulsion work"). It provides detailed information on Naval Reactors operations at that period of time, and describes NR's areas of development to achieve improved power densities and extended core life. The evaluation and servicing section describes NR's requests to support defueling or dismantling the S1C, D1G, A1W, and S5G prototype plants. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/011/011.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1998 12:00:00 GMT FY 2002 Naval Reactors budget request. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/012/012.pdf This budget document describes Naval Reactors' budget needs as of the first half of 2001. The evaluation and servicing section provides information on the state of the prototype plants (with S8G and MARF in use) and the work to deplete the Advanced Fleet Reactor (the S6W core, installed in the S8G prototype) for core testing purposes. The document provides a good overview of the current and in-development technologies being supported by NR in 2001. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/012/012.pdf Mon, 01 Jan 2001 12:00:00 GMT FY 2003 Naval Reactors budget request. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/017/017.pdf This document provides an extremely detailed analysis of the FY 2003 budget request for the Naval Reactors program. The section on operational lifetimes (page 12 of file) notes that the Enterprise and a number of Los Angeles-class submarines are serving for far longer than their designed lifetimes. The request describes the fact that six of the eight land-based prototypes had been shutdown by 2002 and were in the process of being deactivated. It provides reports on the units within Naval Reactors, including mission goals, recently-completed activities, and planned projects. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/017/017.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 2002 12:00:00 GMT FY 2005 Naval Reactors budget request. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/009/009.pdf This budget document describes Naval Reactors funding for the 2005 fiscal year, and for the preceding fiscal years. The program's fundamental purpose is stated: "Provide the Navy with safe, militarily effective nuclear propulsion plants and ensure their continued safe and reliable operation" (521). The budget document describes the development of the CVN 21 (later designated as A1B) reactor, the successor to the A4W plants that power the Nimitz-class aircraft carriers. As noted, the A1B plants will provide over 25% more energy than the A4W plants and require significantly fewer propulsion plant operators. The document also describes Naval Reactors' work with Transformational Technology Core (TTC) pressurized water reactors, which will "deliver a significant energy increase to future VIRGINIA-class" submarines (522). The "Memos and Strategies" section (526) describes the program's relationship to the Bettis and Knolls laboratories. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/009/009.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 2004 12:00:00 GMT FY 2006 Naval Reactors budget request. United States Department of Energy. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/026/026.pdf The fiscal year 2006 budget request for Naval Reactors. Beyond the primary goal of plant safety, the request describes NR's strategic efforts "to increase core energy, to achieve life-of-the-ship cores, and to eliminate the need to refuel nuclear powered ships" (557). These development efforts included the reactor plant design for the CVN 21 class (the A1B reactor) and the Transformational Technology Core (TTC) for Virginia-class fast attack submarines. One motive behind TTC described in the request was "the need to transition from 97 to 93 percent enriched Uranium fuel. This transition is necessitated by the shutdown of the high enrichment plant and the decision to use Uranium recovered from retired nuclear weapons as starter material for naval nuclear reactors" (558). The "Reactor Technology and Analysis" section provides more in-depth coverage of NR's TTC work. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/026/026.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 2005 12:00:00 GMT FY 2014 Naval Reactors budget request. Department of Energy. National Nuclear Security Administration. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/106/106.pdf This document contains the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) congressional budget request for FY 2014, which includes a request for $1.246 billion dollars for Naval Reactors. The request notes that Naval Reactors manages "96 operating reactor plants. This includes 72 submarines, 10 aircraft carriers, and 4 research, development, and training platforms (including the land-based prototypes)" (643). It also describes several milestones for the Naval Reactors program for the previous fiscal year, including the commissioning and construction of Virginia-class submarines. Two planned milestones for FY 2014 are stated: The "cumulative completion of 99% of the Gerald R. Ford-class next-generation aircraft carrier reactor plant design" and the "cumulative completion of 22% of the Ohio-class Ballistic Missile Submarine Replacement (Ohio replacement) reactor plant design" (642). The significant advances that will be achieved by the new plant design for the Gerald R. Ford-class (the A1B reactor) are m... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/106/106.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 2013 12:00:00 GMT The George Washington - ballistic missile submarine. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/017/017.html The USS George Washington (SSBN-598), the world's first ballistic missile submarine, being launched at Electric Boat in Groton, Connecticut in 1959. Because of the national security urgency of building a less-vulnerable missile system, the construction of the George Washington was expedited by using the bow and stern sections of the of the under-construction Scorpion, and inserting a 130 foot missile section between the two sections. She was powered by the submarine fleet reactor plant, the S5W. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/017/017.html Tue, 09 Jun 1959 12:00:00 GMT The George Washington underway. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/053/053.html The USS George Washington, the first Polaris missile submarine. The George Washington was the lead boat in her class and was powered by an S5W reactor plant. In November 1960, the she began submerged patrols, providing the United States with a secure ballistic missile capability. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/053/053.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Hazards of military reactors. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/085/085.pdf This collection of reports from 1961 and 1962 provide information on the hazards of military reactor plants, including issues relating to port visits for nuclear-powered ships and submarines. One of the most interesting documents is a 1959 letter (pages 47-49) from AEC chairman John McCone to Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations. It emphasizes the AEC's oversight responsibility for nuclear propulsion while noting that the Navy's operational control of nuclear-powered vessels. The letter also provides some insights into the AEC's role in reactor development oversight ("the design of each new class of reactors Is summarized in a Reactor Hazards Summary Report and presented by the Naval Reactors Branch and the reactor contractor for review by the Commission's safeguards staff and by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards")(48). One of the reports includes nformation on the Naval Reactors program's approach to the discharge of low-level radioactive fluids, including data on the amount of rad... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/085/085.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Highly enriched uranium: Striking a balance. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/055/055.pdf This Department of Energy study was designed to "present a complete picture of the production, acquisition, and utilization of highly enriched uranium (HEU)" (1). The opening summary includes a definition of HEU: "Uranium that has been enriched to uranium-235 isotopic content of 20 percent or more" (1). The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program employs HEU in its reactor plants, including shipboard reactors and the training prototypes. Appendix F describes the factors that led to HEU's use in naval reactor plants, including the need for compact reactors and increased power output over time, along with the need for infrequent refueling or cores that last the lifetime of ship. A significant portion of the nation's HEU inventory (100 metric tons) is dedicated to the naval program's use. Additionally, the report notes that the reactor plant at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (which had been decommissioned by the time of the report's publication) used HEU; the Naval Reactors organization led the design and... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/055/055.pdf Mon, 01 Jan 2001 12:00:00 GMT HMS Dreadnought, first British nuclear submarine. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/088/088.html The HMS Dreadnought, the first British nuclear-powered submarine. In both her overall design and propulsion plant, the Dreadnought mirrored the six United States submarines of the Skipjack class. The Dreadnought was powered by an S5W reactor; Westinghouse worked with the British manufacturer Rolls Royce on the construction of the propulsion plant. Electric Boat provided assistance to the Vickers-Armstrong Limited shipyard for the submarine's construction. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/088/088.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Hunter-killer submarine USS Tullibee. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/079/079.html The USS Tullibee returns from her initial sea trials in the fall of 1960. The sub's propulsion plant was designed for quiet operation, which was achieved by the elimination of reduction gears and the use of an electric propulsion system for all operations. Historian Francis Duncan notes that while the plant's design did result in a quieter propulsion system ("the quietest nuclear platform the Navy had"), it had its downside as well - a larger and heavier propulsion plant (23). Both the S1C prototype and the S2C reactor plant, installed on the Tullibee, were designed by Combustion Engineering; the Atomic Energy Commission awarded the projects to C-E in order to "broaden industrial participation in the [Naval Reactors] program" beyond Westinghouse and General Electric (23). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/079/079.html Mon, 03 Oct 1960 12:00:00 GMT IAEA/USA interregional training course on decontamination and decommissioning of research reactors and other Small Nuclear Facilities. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/056/056.pdf This document, lecture notes created by Lawrence E. Boing of the Argonne National Laboratory, "presents an overview of the U.S. experiences in the decommissioning technical area" and provides information on the regulation of reactor decommissioning activities (1). Coverage includes commercial reactors, research reactors, naval reactors and prototypes, and other defense-related reactors. It includes a summary of the Ship-Submarine Recycling Program (SRP), which was created to "perform the scrapping and disposition of all U.S. Navy nuclear powered vessels" (15). As described, this is accomplished in two steps: vessel stripping, which includes defueling of the reactor plant(s) and which can be performed at several United States shipyards; and, removal of the reactor compartment and scrapping of the vessel. Finally, the report includes information on the decommissioning of the Shippingport reactor (the design and construction of which was overseen by Naval Reactors). The notes conclude with Boing emphasiz... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/056/056.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1998 12:00:00 GMT Infrastructure - Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/gif/001/001.html This diagram describes the work of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, a joint Department of Energy and Navy program. Naval Reactors is "responsible for design, development, operation, and disposal of Naval nuclear propulsion plants." The program's training includes Naval Nuclear Power School (theoretical training) and prototype training, which is currently conducted on board moored ships and at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory's Kesselring site. NR oversees the work performed by public and private shipyards and contractual relationships with hundreds of specialized vendors. It also works with two major laboratories, Bettis and Knolls. This chart underscores the complexity of NR and the fact that its available infrastructure is managed by a relatively small central organization. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/gif/001/001.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Instructions to bring Shippingport power breeder to 100 percent reactor power. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/083/083.html An image showing President Jimmy Carter's instructions on 2 December 1987 to operators at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station to "increase light-water breeder reactor power to 100%" (191). Carter issued the order from the White House in a ceremony attended by Secretary of Energy James Schlesinger, Admiral Hyman Rickover, and other Naval Reactors officials; it marked the beginning of routine operations at the Shippingport plant following its conversion to a breeder reactor. The core, which generated more fuel than it consumed, was composed of U-233 and Thorium. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/083/083.html Fri, 02 Dec 1977 12:00:00 GMT Integrated nuclear power systems for future naval surface combatants. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/043/043.pdf This hearing was held in the context of the United States Navy's currently use of surface nuclear propulsion only for its aircraft carriers. Expanding nuclear propulsion to smaller surface ships, such as the then-planned CG(X) class, is a compelling option, particularly given high oil prices. Dr. Delores Etter (Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Research, Development and Acquisition) provides an analysis of the pros and cons of nuclear-powered surface combatants, concluding that, based upon fuel costs and expected energy demands, "nuclear power should be considered for near-term application for [medium-size surface combatants]" (3). One limiter in expanding the application of nuclear propulsion, cited by Etter, is the fact that "the nuclear portions of any surface combatant would need to be done at one of the two shipyards authorized to do such work: Northrup Grumman Newport News and General Dynamics Electric Boat" - two yards that are heavily engaged in submarine and aircraft carrier work (3). In his state... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/043/043.pdf Thu, 01 Mar 2007 12:00:00 GMT Irradiated core materials received at the Expended Core Facility. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/010/010.html Workers on the defueling platform at the Expended Core Facility (ECF), located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Rail cars enter the ECF and the transfer cask shown in the photo (just above the workers) is used to hoist expended fuel into a water pit, where processing begins. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/010/010.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Joint motion for entry of consent order based on settlement agreement. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/067/067.pdf This document contains the joint settlement agreement of 1995 regarding spent fuel processing activities at the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility (ECF). The parties to the agreement include the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the United States Navy. The ECF plays a critical role in Naval Reactors' cradle-to-grave support for naval nuclear propulsion. By the terms of the agreement, "the Navy may make only those shipments of naval spent fuel to [the Idaho National Laboratory (INL)] that are necessary to meet national security requirements to defuel or refuel nuclear powered submarines, surface warships, or naval prototype or training reactors, or to ensure examination of naval spent fuel from these sources" (3). The agreement defines the maximum amount of spent fuel that can be shipped to INL each year. Additionally, it mandates that all spent fuel, excluding that used for testing, must be removed from the INL by 2035. The agreement mandates that transuranic wastes stored... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/067/067.pdf Tue, 17 Oct 1995 12:00:00 GMT Launch of the NR-1 submersible research vehicle. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/043/043.html The NR-1 nuclear submarine slides down the building ways at Electric Boat (division of General Dynamics). NR-1 was used as a deep sea exploration and recovery vehicle. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/043/043.html Sat, 25 Jan 1969 12:00:00 GMT Launch of the USS Narwhal at Electric Boat. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/099/099.html The launch of the USS Narwhal, which was powered by the S5G natural circulation reactor. The Narwhal was built concurrently with the design, construction, and operation of the S5G prototype reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory. She was commissioned in June of 1969. As historian Richard Duncan notes, "although the natural-circulation reactor was successful, the navy built no more ships of [the Narwhal] class" (27). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/099/099.html Sat, 09 Sep 1967 12:00:00 GMT Launch of the USS Skipjack. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/052/052.html The launch of the USS Skipjack, lead boat in her class. The Skipjack incorporated a new hull design to improve her underwater speed, through a decrease in the length-to-beam ratio (making the boat both shorter and wider compared with nuclear submarines such as the Nautilus and Skate). The Skipjack was the first submarine powered by the S5W reactor plant, which became the Navy's submarine fleet reactor, used to drive both attack and ballistic missile submarines. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/052/052.html Mon, 26 May 1958 12:00:00 GMT Launching Glenard P. Lipscomb: Nuclear powered electric drive submarine. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/079/079.pdf The program from the launching of the USS Glenard P. Lipscomb, which was powered by the S5W reactor plant and employed an electric drive propulsion system to achieve noise reduction. Instead of a steam-driven propulsion plant with reduction gears converting the high-speed efficiency of the turbine to the lower speed of the shaft and screw, an electric motor was used to drive the submarine. The program's text describes the two basic thrusts of naval nuclear propulsion development in the late 1960s and early 1970s. First, the development of a high-speed submarine, the 688 (Los Angeles) class; second, the development of a submarine focused on noise reduction - the Lipscomb, using the electric drive system. The Lipscomb was the only submarine built in its class; as historian Francis Duncan notes, the electric propulsion system was larger and heavier than the components in the steam-driven propulsion plant. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/079/079.pdf Sat, 04 Aug 1973 12:00:00 GMT Lower section of plant pressurizer, Shippingport Atomic Power Station. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/070/070.html The lower section of the pressurizer at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. In a pressurized water reactor plant, the pressurizer is used to maintain satisfactory operating pressure. Primary pressure in increased through the operation of the removable heating elements visible on the right side of the pressurizer. Pressure is reduced through a spray nozzle at the top of the unit. The pressurizer is connected to the primary coolant system through the surge line (entering the bottom of the pressurizer) and the spray line (entering at the top). During normal power operations, steam is present above the pressurizer's water volume. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/070/070.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main control console at Shippingport (looking north). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/063/063.html The main control console for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. While the Naval Reactors organization, working with Westinghouse, led the design and development of the Shippingport reactor, some aspects of the plant - such as the large size of the control panels and the use of concrete for shielding - were quite different when compared with the submarine reactor plants that had been designed and built under NR's oversight. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/063/063.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main control console at Shippingport (looking south). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/086/086.html A view of the control room at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, with the reactor control panel on the left and the turbine control panel in the center. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/086/086.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main coolant pump, lower section, at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/069/069.html A reactor coolant pump at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The pump circulated water (which served as both coolant and moderator in the pressurized water reactor plant) through the core and the steam generator. One centrifugal pump was installed in each of the plant's four reactor coolant loops. Each pump had two operating speeds, to save electrical power when the plant was operated at below 50% reactor power. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/069/069.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Main coolant pump removed from operation. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/075/075.html A reactor coolant pump removed from operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Shippingport reactor used four reactor coolant pumps, one for each primary loop. The single-stage, leak proof centrifugal pump supported the flow of coolant in the primary system; in addition to the coolant flow through the pump, lower temperature water circulated within the pump to remove heat and lubricate the motor bearings. The pump was powered by a 2,300 volt electric motor that supported full-speed and half-speed operations. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/075/075.html Fri, 08 May 1964 12:00:00 GMT Management of key technologies in the UK Naval Nuclear Propulsion Programme. Christopher Palmer http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/054/054.pdf Presentation slides created by Christopher Palmer (Assistant Chief Engineer of Rolls-Royce Submarines) describing technology management in the United Kingdom's Naval Nuclear Propulsion Programme. Slide two provides the programme timeline. The first UK nuclear-powered submarine, the HMS Dreadnought, was powered by an S5W reactor and launched in 1960. The HMS Valiant, launched in 1966, was the first UK submarine powered by a Rolls-Royce pressurized water reactor plant. Both the UK and US programs are focused on building submarines that do not require refueling; slide 3 describes Rolls-Royce's Core H design, which achieves this goal. Slide 4 notes that future UK ballistic missile submarines will be powered by a next-generation plant, PWR3, which represents "a significant design evolution for the UK NNPP." In slide 5, Palmer describes the unique role of the UK NNPP in technology management, given its independent technical development and the depressed state of civilian nuclear power in the UK. He gives th... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/054/054.pdf Thu, 01 Dec 2011 12:00:00 GMT Map showing the location of Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/051/051.html This map shows a section of the Idaho National Laboratory, including the location of the Naval Reactors Facility. In 1965, NRF included the S1W and A1W prototype plants, along with the recently-built S5G prototype and the Expended Core Facility (ECF); the latter two facilities are noted on the map. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/051/051.html Thu, 11 Mar 1965 12:00:00 GMT Materials performance in operating PWR steam generators. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/052/052.pdf This paper describes a challenge to the operation of pressurized water reactors on naval vessels: Steam generator U-tube leakage, primarily due to secondary chemistry problems. As described in the abstract, chemistry problems are centered in "those areas of the steam generators where limited coolant circulation and high heat flux have caused impurities to concentrate." Circulation problems (leading to cracking and corrosion) in Inconel U-tubes can be produced by "sludge deposits accumulated on the tube sheet or on tubing supports." In terms of prevention, the paper notes that "at the present time, all U.S. manufacturers of PWR's are recommending that their customers use an all-volatile treatment of the secondary coolant." It continues by providing water chemistry case studies on the three methods then used to maintain secondary chemistry: "A phosphate treatment, an all-volatile treatment, and a zero-solids treatment" (and the importance of moving from the first treatment method and attempting to reverse... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/052/052.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1975 12:00:00 GMT Mechanical properties of Zircaloy-2. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/062/062.pdf To summarize: "Zircaloy-2 is a zirconium-tin alloy developed for use in water cooled nuclear reactors. It possesses good corrosion resistance to high-temperature water, excellent nuclear characteristics, and sufficiently good mechanical properties for use as a structural material in reactor cores and as a fuel element material" (1). The report analyzes changes in Zircaloy-2 properties caused by changes in operating conditions, including temperature, hydrogen concentration, and the presence of small notches in the material. As noted in the Hewlett/Duncan book, Nuclear Navy, "the study of zirconium alloys [in the first half of the 1950s] resulted in the development of a new material called Zircaloy-2, which was far superior to the material used in the [Mark I/S1W] core." http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/062/062.pdf Sun, 01 Jan 1961 12:00:00 GMT Missile tubes in USS Sam Rayburn. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/058/058.html The USS Sam Rayburn during her service as a ballistic missile submarine. The submarine was decommissioned in 1989 and converted to a moored training S5W prototype facility. The Sam Rayburn is currently moored at Naval Weapons Station Charleston. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/058/058.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Mobilis in mobile: History of the U.S.S. Nautilus. Andy Rogulich, NAJVS Inc. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/027/027.pdf Slides from a presentation by Andy Rogulich of the North American Jules Verne Society at the organization's 2007 conference. Rogulich describes the history of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) and compares her with Verne's fictional Nautilus in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. Rogulich's comparison of attributes of the USS Nautilus and Verne's Nautilus (page 16) is particularly interesting. He describes his visit to the Historic Ship Nautilus and the fact that a signed first edition of Verne's "Twenty Thousand Leagues" is displayed on board the Nautilus museum. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/027/027.pdf Sun, 08 Jul 2007 12:00:00 GMT Monitoring equipment outside S1W hull. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/006/006.html Navy and civilian operators with monitoring equipment at the aft end of the S1W propulsion plant. The S1W's water brake, which absorbed the shaft power, can be seen directly behind the monitoring panel. The aft end of the hull is visible at left. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/png/006/006.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT NASA/Navy Benchmarking Exchange (NNBE): Naval Reactors safety assurance. NASA Office of Safety & Mission Assurance. NAVSEA 08 Naval Reators. NAVSEA 07Q Submarine Safety & Quality Assurance Division. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/006/006.pdf As noted in the Executive Summary, "the NASA/Navy Benchmarking Exchange (NNBE) was undertaken to identify practices and procedures and to share lessons learned in the Navy's submarine and NASA's human space flight programs" (iv). NASA benchmarked Naval Reactors because of its "high reliability...provid[ing] the most meaningful comparison to NASA's human-rated space flight program" (4). A number of principles developed by the program's first director, Hyman G. Rickover, are analyzed, including the importance of a flat organizational structure that supports informed dissent; responsibility through ownership of a job, longevity, and technical expertise; and, the need for embedding safety principles in all aspects of a program's work. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/006/006.pdf Tue, 15 Jul 2003 12:00:00 GMT NASA's organizational and management challenges in the wake of the Columbia disaster. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/045/045.pdf This document describes a House Science Committee hearing on changes to NASA's organizational structure and culture following the loss of the space shuttle Columbia in 2003. Naval Reactors was one of several organizations identified as "model safety organizations" whose examples could be used to help guide changes at NASA (4). The prepared statement of Admiral Skip Bowman (Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion), is included in the document. Bowman testified on the program's "culture of safety" and the fact that safety is "mainstreamed" throughout the Naval Reactors program, from its research laboratories to contractor relationships, and to its operators in the fleet (18). He described the organizational structure of NR and its relatively small size (380 civilian and military employees in 2003), given the scope and complexity of the projects that it manages. Admiral Bowman also describes the importance of training in the program and his direct oversight role in this area. Bowman's statement followed work betwe... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/045/045.pdf Wed, 29 Oct 2003 12:00:00 GMT National Nuclear Security Administration: Executive summary, FY 2004 Congressional budget request. National Nuclear Security Administration http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/010/010.pdf This budget request describes the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), which was created in 2000 and oversees the Office of Naval Reactors. The document has detailed budget information for Naval Reactors facilities for the 2002 and 2003 fiscal years, and information on requests for FY 2004. The Transformational Technology Core (TTC) Pressurized Water Reactor ("a new design reactor core") is mentioned in the Naval Reactors summary (12). http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/010/010.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 2003 12:00:00 GMT The Nautilus approaches New York City, 1958. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/067/067.html The USS Nautilus, following the successful completion of her 1958 transpolar voyage. Admiral Hyman Rickover's joint Navy/Atomic Energy Commission organization led the creation of the Nautilus. Under Naval Reactors, Westinghouse was responsible for the design and construction of the land-based S1W prototype reactor plant and the S2W plant that powered the Nautilus. Electric Boat constructed the Nautilus and was a subcontractor to Westinghouse for construction of the S1W prototype's hull. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/067/067.html Mon, 25 Aug 1958 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Progam. Joint Commitee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/089/089.pdf This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing document includes lengthy testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion. It covers a wide range of issues related to the United States Navy's use of nuclear propulsion. As noted in the forward, "the Joint Committee has long recognized the significant military advantages nuclear power provides surface warships" (iii). The hearing is a response to the Department of Defense's (DOD's) proposal to construct two conventionally-powered destroyers after Congress authorized a nuclear-powered frigate in fiscal year 1966. In his testimony, Rickover describes this decision as parallel to earlier "failure[s] of imagination and judgment" regarding the use of nuclear propulsion for submarines and aircraft carriers (11). Based upon this hearing, "the Joint Committee recommend[ed] that the Congress change the fiscal year 1967 Department of Defense authorization to require the two new destroyers to be nuclear-powered ships" (vii). The hearing include... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/089/089.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 1966 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1967-8. Joint Commitee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/095/095.pdf This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing document includes the unclassified testimony of Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion. He testified on two dates, March 7, 1967 and February 8, 1968. The Forward describes the Joint Committee's ongoing advocacy for surface nuclear propulsion, specifically for an increase in the number of guided missile cruisers to serve as escorts for nuclear-powered carriers. (The second nuclear-powered carrier, the USS Nimitz, had been authorized by this date.) Regarding submarines, the Forward notes Department of Defense cuts to nuclear submarine construction and the parallel with earlier Joint Committee leadership on nuclear propulsion: "Because of the inability of the Department of Defense to recognize the importance of nuclear submarines, the Joint Committee had to arrange for the Atomic Energy Commission to buy the propulsion plants for the first two nuclear submarines, Nautilus and Seawolf, in addition to funding the development work and the ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/095/095.pdf Mon, 01 Jan 1968 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1969. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/091/091.pdf This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing was held to obtain supplemental data for the fiscal year 1970 Atomic Energy Commission request for the naval reactors development program. The document includes information on several issues of controversy between the Joint Committee and the Executive Branch, including the ongoing construction of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the development of a high speed fast attack submarine (Los Angeles-class), and Admiral Rickover's continuation as the head of the Naval Reactors program. It includes a lengthy (101 pages) record of Admiral Rickover's testimony to the Joint Committee. Rickover's testimony focuses on the danger on the Soviet Union's submarine buildup and the need to build the high speed, fast attack submarine; this construction program was a point of contention between the Joint Committee and both the Johnson and Nixon administrations. The Joint Committee's position in the document: "Because of the urgency of delivering these new ships to the fleet... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/091/091.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1969 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1970. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/096/096.pdf The unclassified portion of Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearings relating to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. The document describes the growth in the Soviet submarine force, including ballistic missile submarines. A key recommendation concerns the construction of a new class of fast attack submarines, the Los Angeles class: "Because of the urgency of delivering the new high-speed SSN 688 class attack submarines to the fleet, the Joint Committee strongly recommends that the fiscal year 1971 nuclear warship construction program include as a minimum the funds necessary to award contracts for four of these submarines and advance funding for three more" (vii). Additionally, David Leighton of Naval Reactors describes the limits on construction activities because the Department of Defense had not placed "the highest industrial priority" on the high-speed submarine project (30). One noted engineering advance is core life extension: "Cores are being produced which will provide for over 10 years of nor... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/096/096.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1971. Joint Commitee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/093/093.pdf This document includes the unclassified testimony of Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Rickover's testimony touches on a wide range of topics, particularly the need to expand the nuclear navy in light the growth of the Soviet fleet. Rickover emphasizes "the rapidly expanding Soviet naval threat and the rapidly declining naval strength of the United States relative to the threat" and the Soviet's quantitative and qualitative advances in submarine development (iii). As one step to address these advances, the Joint Committee advocates "a strong construction program of high speed SSN-688 (Los Angeles-class) class ships" (viii). Rickover asserts that "because of their improved propulsion plant, [Los Angeles-class] submarines will have greatly increased capabilities compared to our previous attack submarine designs" (14). The Joint Committee's primary criticism of the Nixon administration and the Department of Defense is in the area o... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/093/093.pdf Fri, 01 Jan 1971 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1972-73. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/098/098.pdf This document is the unclassified record of Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearings held on February 8, 1972 and March 28, 1973. During the 1972 hearing, Vice Admiral Hyman Rickover describes the current size of the United States' nuclear-powered submarine fleet: "We have a total today of 118 atomic submarines authorized of which 97 are presently operational. Among those that are operational, 41 are fleet ballistic missile submarines, 56 are attack submarines. We have a total of 21 more nuclear attack submarines under construction" (3). Both members of the Joint Committee and Rickover express concern over the quantitative advances in the Soviet Union's submarine fleet. This hearing includes a lengthy discussion on personnel selection and retention issues for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. Rickover also advocates for committee support for the funding the fourth nuclear-powered carrier and for the construction of nuclear-powered carrier escorts. In the 1973 hearing, Rickover again expresses his... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/098/098.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 1974 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1974. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/092/092.pdf This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing document includes extensive testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion. Rickover opens by praising several committee members who chose not to stand for reelection in 1974. He reviews the names of committee members who have either died or left Congress - indeed, the Joint Committee was abolished within three years and the changes in Congress made Rickover's 1982 retirement much easier to accomplish. During the hearing, Rickover describes the efforts of Naval Reactors and industry to develop longer life cores for nuclear submarines and surface ships (10 to 13 years at the time of the hearing), including the path to cores that will last the life of the ship and cost issues. These included the higher research costs and the eventual savings obtained through reduced overhaul intervals and increased ship availability. Rickover also describes procurement for SSN-688 (Los Angeles-class) fast attack submarines. (The USS Los Angeles was l... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/092/092.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1975 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1975. Joint Commitee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/099/099.pdf This document is the unclassified version of Admiral Hyman Rickover's March 5, 1975 testimony to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. This hearing occurred during a time of transition, as the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) had replaced the Atomic Energy Commission and was now the civilian parent of Rickover's Naval Reactors organization. Rickover reports to the committee on the recent, successful sea trials of the USS Nimitz, the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. He also reports on the operation and construction of SSN-688 (Los Angeles) class high-speed fast attack submarines. This hearing record provides a great deal of information on the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Rickover describes its basic design: "We are now working on a breeder core to go into the existing Shippingport plant as a backfit. This breeder core will use light water instead of sodium as coolant." Continuing: "This breeder core will use the thorium/uranium-233 fuel cycle" (21). The LWBR enabled... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/099/099.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1975 12:00:00 GMT Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program--1976. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Subcommitee on Legislation. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/100/100.pdf This document is the unclassified record of hearings on the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program held in March 1976. Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Division of Naval Reactors, testified on the Naval Reactors Program and the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). After summarizing the program's growth (106 submarines in operation, with an additional 32 Los Angeles-class and Trident submarines authorized; and, two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in operation), Rickover describes the rapid growth of the Soviet submarine fleet and the United States' responses of the high-speed, fast attack (SSN-688) class and the Trident ballistic missile submarine to replace Polaris and Poseidon ballistic missile submarines. Some committee members, led by Stuart Symington, express concerns about the high cost of the Trident submarine program. In a statement, Rickover notes the advances provided by Trident in terms of ballistic missile range (permitting submarines to be based closer to the United States) and noise reduction, te... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/100/100.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1976 12:00:00 GMT Naval reactor program and Polaris missile system. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/088/088.pdf This document is the public record of a Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing on the Polaris missile submarine program. The hearing was conducted on board the USS George Washington, the first ballistic missile submarine, which was powered by the already-proven S5W reactor. The record describes the integration of nuclear propulsion technology, proven in earlier submarines such as the Nautilus, and ballistic missile technology, under the oversight of Admiral William F. Raborn. Its introduction describes the Joint Committee's focus on reactor safety, mentioning the 1961 SL-1 accident at the Idaho National Laboratory and the importance of the design, construction, and operation standards created by Naval Reactors: "The committee also looks to the Navy to meet the Atomic Energy Commission's safety standards in all aspects of its nuclear propulsion program and to resist any pressures to force this new technology into an old system which may have sufficed for ordinary propulsion" (VI). In his testimony, Ad... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/088/088.pdf Sat, 09 Apr 1960 12:00:00 GMT Naval reactor program and Shippingport project. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/094/094.pdf This Joint Committee on Atomic Energy hearing record includes lengthy testimony by Admiral Hyman Rickover, Director, Naval Nuclear Propulsion, on a range of issues, including the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, the first nuclear power plant that supplied commercial power on a large scale. Rep. Melvin Price, chair of the Subcommittee on Research and Development, opens the hearing by praising Rickover and Naval Reactors: "The [Joint Committee] has been very favorably impressed by the excellent contributions the AEC has made to the civilian power program through the naval reactors program" (1). The hearing includes Rickover's update on naval nuclear propulsion. He describes some of the problems with the Seawolf's sodium-cooled reactor plant, and Naval Reactors' reactor development philosophy (with parallel development of thermal energy/pressurized water and intermediate range/sodium-cooled reactor plants). He also describes some of the other challenges faced by the program at its beginning, such as the ... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/094/094.pdf Tue, 01 Jan 1957 12:00:00 GMT Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/010/010.html An aerial view of the Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. NRF was the site of the S1W, A1W, and S5G prototypes. The site's Expended Core Facility remains open to support the processing of spent fuel from United States naval reactors. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/jpeg/010/010.html Thu, 01 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT Naval reactors physics handbook. Volume 1, Selected basic techniques. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/032/032.pdf This chapter, written by physicist Alvin Radkowsky, summarizes the design challenges of submarine reactors in comparison with the natural uranium graphite reactors that had been designed and built during World War II. For example, Radkowsky describes the novelty ("close spacing") and design complexity of the control rod arrangement in PWRs (4). He also describes the parallel track of reactor development overseen by NR, with the intermediate range research supporting the S1G and S2G reactors performed by the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; and, research supporting the Submarine Thermal Reactor (STR, or the S1W and S2W reactors) led by the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. He notes that while the intermediate range reactor approach had, by 1964, been abandoned in favor of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) design, that "fuel loading densities are often sufficiently high [so] that a substantial fraction of the fissions occurs above thermal neutron energies" (2). As a result, some research relating to the inte... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/032/032.pdf Wed, 01 Jan 1964 12:00:00 GMT Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Experiences and considerations with irradiation test performance in an international environment. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. Lockheed Martin. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/008/008.pdf This document describes the NRPCT's efforts to identify reactors worldwide for irradiation testing of materials expected to be included in a Prometheus reactor. The Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO in O-arai, Japan was identified as the best facility to support irradiation testing for the project (which was created to support space reactor development for solar exploration; the project ended in 2005). JOYO is a sodium-cooled Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR). Detailed planning information for reactor materials irradiation testing is included in the report. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/008/008.pdf Wed, 15 Feb 2006 12:00:00 GMT Naval spent nuclear fuel management. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/053/053.pdf This document provides a planning and options overview of spent fuel handling for naval reactors plants as of 1994. Attachment A provides, as noted in the scope statement, "an evaluation of the radiological and non-radiological risks associated with the transportation of naval spent nuclear fuel and [irradiated] test specimens that originate from Navy and commercial shipyards, prototypes, and related Department of Energy laboratories" (A-1). These materials have historically been handled at the Idaho National Laboratory's Expended Core Facility. It continues by describing five alternatives for the handling and management of spent fuel generated from naval nuclear propulsion plants. This section also describes, in depth, the locations that send and receive shipments; spent nuclear fuel shipping containers; transport methods for containers; and, information on potential exposure from the transportation of spent fuel containers. On the latter point, information on accident analyses (along with exposure as... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/053/053.pdf Sat, 01 Jan 1994 12:00:00 GMT Navy aircraft carriers: Cost-effectiveness of conventionally and nuclear-powered carriers. United States General Accounting Office http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/041/041.pdf This 1998 GAO study analyzes the cost-effectiveness of nuclear-powered carriers compared with their conventional counterparts. Chapter 3 focuses on a primary finding, that .life-cycle costs for nuclear-powered aircraft carriers are greater than for conventionally-powered carriers. (74). This includes construction and modernization costs; support and operations costs; and, costs after decommissioning (.because of the extensive work necessary to remove spent nuclear fuel from the reactor plant and remove and dispose of the radiologically contaminated reactor plant and other system components. (74). The report notes that the Department of Defense .disagreed that comparing the life-cycle costs of conventionally powered carriers such as the U.S.S. John F. Kennedy with Nimitz-class nuclear-powered carriers was appropriate because of differences in the age, size, and capabilities of the carriers. (96). Chapter 4 describes the benefits of having a United States carrier homeported in Japan and the maintenance faci... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/041/041.pdf Thu, 01 Jan 1998 12:00:00 GMT Navy nuclear-powered surface ships: Background, issues, and options for Congress. Ronald O'Rourke. Congressional Research Service. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/003/003.pdf This 2010 study, authored by Ronald O'Rourke of the Congressional Research Service, describes issues relating to the expansion of nuclear propulsion to cruisers. O'Rourke notes that the only current United States Navy nuclear-powered surface ships are aircraft carriers. At the same time, section 1012 of the 2008 Defense Authorization Act states that major combantant ships should be nuclear-powered, unless the Secretary of Defense reports to Congress that the use of nuclear propulsion is not in the national interest. The author describes issues relating to the CG(X) cruiser class (which was cancelled in 2010) and provides cost comparisons of nuclear- versus conventionally-powered cruisers. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/003/003.pdf Wed, 29 Sep 2010 12:00:00 GMT Navy Ohio replacement (SSBN[X]) ballistic missile submarine program: Background and issues for Congress. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/064/064.pdf This report, written by naval affairs specialist Ronald O'Rourke, describes the Ohio ballistic missile submarine replacement (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The report's table 1, on page 5, shows how SSBN(X) fits with the four predecessor classes of U.S. ballistic missile submarines. O'Rourke notes that "unlike the [S8G] Ohio-class design, which requires a mid-life nuclear refueling, the SSBN(X) is to be equipped with a life-of-the-ship nuclear fuel core (a nuclear fuel core that is sufficient to power the ship for its entire expected service life" (11). Additionally, to achieve noise reduction, "the SSBN(X) is to be equipped with an electric-drive propulsion plant, as opposed to the mechanical-drive propulsion plant used on other Navy submarines" (15). O'Rourke's report provides information on issues that will have to be considered by Congress for the SSBN(X) program, such as the number of SLBMs in each submarine. This section quotes Admiral Kirkland Donald, Naval Reactors head in support of the decision to r... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/064/064.pdf Thu, 05 Apr 2012 12:00:00 GMT Navy Ohio replacement (SSBN[X]) ballistic missile submarine program: Background and issues for Congress. http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/108/108.pdf This report, written by naval affairs specialist Ronald O'Rourke, describes the Ohio ballistic missile submarine replacement (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The goal of this program is "to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio class SSBNs." In the summary, he cites the September 2013 congressional testimony of Admiral Jonathan Greenert, Chief of Naval Operations, who described the SSBN(X) as "the top priority program for the Navy." The first SSBN(X) submarine is expected to be procured in FY 2021. One issue outlined by O'Rourke is the impact of sequester funding cuts on the SSBN(X) program. In May 2013, the Navy noted that the March 2013 sequester cuts "have not altered the Navy's plan to procure the lead boat in FY2021, but have added schedule and technical risk to the program" (17). A late 2013 or early 2014 sequester cut, on top of the 2013 reductions, would have a damaging impact on the SSBN(X) program and on the nation's strategic... http://navalreactorshistorydb.info:8080/xtf/data/pdf/108/108.pdf Tue, 22 Oct 2013 12:00:00 GMT